## Capstone 2021

The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of cooperative learning strategies would increase student achievement in science class.

**Endorsement & Grade Level:** Secondary Science,

7th grade

**T-Test Write-Up:** A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of cooperative learning strategies on students’ achievement in science. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing cooperative learning strategies (M=4.25, SD=3.18) and after implementing (M=9.0, SD=2.78) the cooperative learning strategies; t(23)= 7.2349, p = 0.0000001502. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.51). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of cooperative learning strategies had a positive effect on students’ achievement in science. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of cooperative learning strategies to engage students increased student achievement.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of TCIT (Teacher, Child, Interaction, Training-Universal) implementation in the classroom would decrease the impulsive negative actions and behaviors from identified Tier II students.

**Endorsement & Grade Level:** Improvement of Instruction, Kindergarten

**T-Test Write-Up:** A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of TCIT (Teacher, Child, Interaction, Training-Universal) implementation in the classroom would decrease the impulsive negative actions and behaviors from identified tier II students. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing TCIT strategies (M=4, SD=2.92) and after implementing (M=13, SD=7.84) TCIT; t(4)=2.92, p =0.0615. The observed effect size is large (1.46). This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of TCIT had a positive effect on decreasing impulsive negative actions and behaviors. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of TCIT improved the behaviors in the classroom.

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The purpose of the study is to determine if using note-taking strategies to target context clues and main idea will have an increased effect on student achievement in reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Elementary, Third Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of summarizing strategies on students’ ability to identify the main idea while reading. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing note-taking strategies (M=73.8, SD=9.18) and after implementing (M=88.25, SD=7.58) the note-taking strategies; t(20)= 3.90, p = 0.00000006.056 The observed effect size d is large, 1.83. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of note-taking strategies had a positive effect on students’ comprehension in reading. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of note-taking strategies to improve comprehension increases reading achievement.

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**Self-Regulation Strategies in Writing **

The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of a writer’s checklist would improve students’ organization when writing a personal narrative.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Secondary English, 8th Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of a writer’s checklist on students’ organization when writing a personal narrative. There was no significant difference in the scores prior to implementing the writer’s checklist (M=63.46, SD=25.22) and after implementing (M=76.92, SD=18.24) the writer’s checklist; t(13)= 1.62, p = 0.06558. The observed effect size d is medium, 0.45. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that the use of a writer’s checklist had no effect on students’ organization when writing a personal narrative. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of a writer’s checklist did not improve organization in students’ personal narratives.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if small reading group instruction increases understanding of blending and segmenting words.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Elementary & Kindergarten

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of small reading group instruction on student understanding of blending and segmenting words. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing small reading group instruction (M=12.14, SD=5.91) and after implementing (M=21.52, SD=5.62) small reading group instruction; t(21)= 8.974, p = 0.000000009453. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.96). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of small reading group instruction had a positive effect on students’ understanding of blending and segmenting words. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of blending and segmenting strategies during small reading group instruction **increased** student understanding of letter names and sounds.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of differentiation during math instruction through the use of pre-teaching and enrichment, along with the use of small group instruction, would increase students’ overall achievement in math.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 3rd Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of intentionally differentiated small group instruction on students’ ability to increase their overall math achievement. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to the implementation of intentional differentiated small group instruction (M=49.70, SD=36.47) and after the implementation of intentional differentiated small group instruction (M=78.64, SD=18.30) the use of intentional differentiated small group instruction; t(17)=5.0603, p=0.00005. The observed standardized effect size is large, 1.23. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.These results suggest that the use of intentional differentiated small group instruction had a positive effect on students’ ability to increase their overall math achievement. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of intentional differentiated small group instruction to support specific learning goals increased students’ overall math achievement.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the combined use of the Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge (EAK) strategy in combination with name writing will increase student ability to correctly identify letter names and sounds.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, Kindergarten

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge strategy in combination with name writing on students' ability to correctly identify letter names and sounds. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing alphabet knowledge and name writing strategies (M=29.58, SD=24.81) and after implementing (M=46.47, SD=29.79) the alphabet knowledge and name writing strategies; t(19)= 5.5991, p = 0.00001294. The observed effect size d is large, 1.28. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of the Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge strategy in combination with name writing had a positive effect on students’ ability to identify letter names and sounds. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of the Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge strategy in combination with name writing to identify letter names and sounds increased student ability to identify letters and sounds.

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The purpose of my study is to determine if targeted, small-group math instruction will increase student confidence and ability in math.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, sixth grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of guided math rotation on students’ confidence and ability to solve mathematics problems. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing guided math rotations (M=34.47, SD=10.94) and after implementing (M=59.11, SD=15.41) guided math rotations; t(15)= 7.84, p = 8.609e-7. The observed effect size d was large, 2.03. The effect size indicated that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 was large. These results suggested that the use of guided math rotations had a positive effect on students’ ability to solve math problems. Specifically, the results suggested that the use of guided math rotations increased student achievement.

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The purpose of my study is to determine if at home literacy support with repeated readings increases students overall reading fluency.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Special Education K-5

**T-Test Write-Up: **Words Correct Per Minute: A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of at home literacy support with repeated readings on students overall reading fluency in the area of words correct per minute. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=35.00, SD=10.51) and after implementing (M=63.60, SD= 12.69) the summarizing strategies; t(5)= 6.22, p = 0.001703. The observed effect size d is large, 2.78. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that repeated readings with at home literacy support had a positive effect on overall reading fluency in the area of words correct per minute. Specifically, the results suggest that at home literacy support with repeated reading increases students reading fluency.

Percent Accuracy: A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of at home literacy support with repeated readings on students overall reading fluency in the area of percent accuracy. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=83.80, SD=8.98) and after implementing (M=97.40, SD= 1.96) the summarizing strategies; t(5)= 3.71, p = 0.01035. The observed effect size d is large, 1.66. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that repeated readings with at home literacy support had a positive effect on overall reading fluency in the area of percent accuracy. Specifically, the results suggest that at home literacy support with repeated reading increases students reading fluency.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of guided math work stations and differentiated groups and instruction would increase student number sense and mathematical reasoning in first-grade students.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 1st Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-sample t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of guided math work stations and differentiated groups and instruction would increase student number sense and mathematical reasoning in first-grade students. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing guided math stations and differentiated groups (M=9.65, SD=3.80) and after implementing (M=14.14, SD=1.21) the guided math stations and differentiated groups; t(22)= 5.91, p = 0.000004392. The observed effect size d is large (1.29). This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of guided math work stations and differentiated groups and instruction had a positive effect of students’ number sense and mathematical reasoning. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of guided math work stations to differentiation strategies increased number sense and reasoning.

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The purpose of my study is to determine if the use of visual schedules will improve students' independence in the classroom throughout the school day.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Special Education, Preschool

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of visual schedules on students’ independence throughout the school day. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing visual schedules (M=26.25, SD=8.20) and after implementing (M=75.5, SD=9.01) the visual schedules; t(4)= 13.10, p = 0.0005. The observed effect size d is large, 6.53. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of visual schedules had a positive effect on students’ independence throughout the school day. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of visual schedules increased all students' independence in the areas of behavior, transitions, time on task, and following directions.

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**Differentiated Math Instruction**

The purpose of this study was to determine if differentiated math instruction would increase student engagement and achievement

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction: 4th Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the implementation of differentiated math instruction on student achievement. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing differentiated instruction (M=44.63, SD=19.10) and after implementing (M=91.31, SD=9.07) differentiated instruction; t(16)= 11.44, p = 4.16e-9. The observed effect size d is large, 2.86. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the implementation of differentiated math instruction had a positive effect on student achievement. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of differentiated instruction increased math achievement.

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**Targeted Summarizing Strategies **

The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of targeted summarizing strategies would increase students’ ability to determine the main idea and supporting details within informational text.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 6th Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of targeted summarizing strategies on students’ ability to identify the main idea and supporting details within informational text. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=57.08, SD=21.11) and after implementing (M=76.15, SD=18.56) the summarizing strategies; t(13)= 4.29, p = 0.0005239. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.19). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of targeted summarizing strategies had a positive effect on students’ ability to identify the main idea and supporting details in informational text. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of targeted summarizing strategies to identify the main idea and supporting details increased reading achievement.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of word work strategies built decoding skills and sight word recognition; ultimately leading to enhanced reading fluency.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Elementary Education (Literacy concentration); 1st Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **There was a **significant** difference in the scores prior to implementing word work strategies (M=61.46, SD=29.83) and after implementing (M=85.54, SD=31.38) the word work strategies; t(13)= 8.91, p = 0.4727. The observed standardized effect size is large (2.47). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.

These results suggest that the use of word work strategies had a **positive** effect on increasing sight word recognition leading to enhanced reading fluency. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of word work strategies to increase sight word recognition increased reading achievement.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if decoding strategies such as Elkonin boxes, letter tiles, and explicit phonics instruction, will increase word decoding accuracy.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction; K

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of Elkonin boxes and letter tiles on students’ word decoding skills. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing Elkonin boxes and letter tiles (M=4.3, SD=1.61) and after implementing (M=8.8, SD=1.26) word decoding; t(19)= 3.03, p = 0.0071. The observed standardized effect size was large (1.09). This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 was large. These results suggest that the use of Elkonin boxes and letter tiles had a positive effect on students’ reading comprehension skills. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of Elkonin boxes and Letter tiles improved students’ word decoding skills.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of conferring and goal setting during individualized daily reading will improve student desire and success in the area of reading.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Literacy, 3rd Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of conferring and goal setting strategies on students’ desire and success in the area of reading. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing conferring and goal setting (M=61.67, SD=28.14) and after implementing (M=79.17, SD=25.12) the noted strategies; t(6)= 3.0542, p = 0.01414. The observed effect size d is large, 1.25. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of conferring and goal setting strategies had a positive effect on students’ desire and success in the area of reading. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of conferring and goal setting to improve student success in reading, desire to read, and engagement in independent reading.

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The purpose of my study is to determine if the strategy CPA (Concrete, Pictorial, and Abstract) will increase students’ understanding of multiplication facts.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 4th Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine if the effect of the strategy CPA (Concrete, Pictorial, and Abstract) would increase students’ understanding of multiplication facts.There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=62, SD=12.57) and after implementing (M=67, SD=11.75) the summarizing strategies; t(4)= 6.1237, p =The p-value equals 0.004377. The observed effect size d was large, 3.06. This indicated that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large .These results suggested that the use of summarizing strategies had a positive effect on students’ ability to identify the main idea while reading. Specifically, the results suggest that the strategy CPA (Concrete, Pictorial, and Abstract) did increase students’ understanding of multiplication facts.

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**Written Communications in Mathematics**

The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of written and oral responses will increase student achievement in number sense and mathematical reasoning.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 3rd grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-sample t-test was conducted to determine if the use of written communication strategies would have an effect on students achievement in number sense and overall mathematical reasoning. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing the writing strategies (M=42.81, SD=9.85) and after implementing (M=82.86, SD=7.12) the written communication strategies; t(7)= 8.53, p =0.00007. The observed standardized effect size is large (3.22). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results further prove that the use of written communication strategies in mathematics had a positive effect on student achievement. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of writing strategies in mathematics increase student number sense and mathematical reasoning abilities.

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**Multi-sensory Learning Methods**

The purpose of my study is to determine if multi-sensory learning methods will increase the alphabetic knowledge abilities in preschool aged students.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Special Education, Preschool

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of multisensory learning methods on students’ alphabetic knowledge abilities. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing multi-sensory strategies (M=3.5, SD= 4.43) and after implementing (M=7.58 SD=6.96) the multi-sensory strategies; t(12)= 4.58, p = 0.0003951. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.32). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of multisensory learning methods had a positive effect on students’ alphabetic knowledge abilities. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of multisensory learning methods increased students’ alphabetic knowledge.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of higher-order questioning would increase students' reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of instruction, 4th grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **The purpose of my study was to determine if higher-order questioning strategies would increase student reading comprehension. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of higher-order questioning strategies on student reading comprehension. There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing the comprehension strategies (M=81.095, SD=7.438) and after implementing (M=81.952, SD=6.484) the strategies; t(21)= -0.7131, p = 0.758. The observed effect size d is small, 0.16. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is small. These results suggest that the use of higher-order questioning strategies had some impact on student reading comprehension, but it was not a significant difference.

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**Fact Fluency and its impact on Number Sense**

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 3rd Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect** of the consistent implementation of fact fluency practice on students' number sense abilities.** There was a **significant** difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=52, SD=28.16) and after implementing (M=73.58, SD=22.64) the summarizing strategies; t(19)= 5.23, p =**0.00002825**. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.20). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that **the consistent implementation of fact fluency practice **had a positive effect on students' number sense. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of Rocket Math and Xtramath to practice facts increased mathematical fast fact fluency achievement.

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The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of math journals, along with math talks, would increase student achievement in solving word problems.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction - 5th grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of math journals with math talks on students’ ability to accurately solve word problems. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=7.47, SD=6.14) and after implementing (M=9.37, SD=3.39) math journals with math talks; t(19)= 3.28, p = 0.002. The observed standardized effect size is large, (0.75). This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of math journals with math talks had a positive effect on students’ ability to accurately solve word problems. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of math journals with math talks increased achievement in problem solving.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if implementing purposeful fact fluency instruction in math would increase students’ achievement.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Literacy, 5th grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of purposeful fact fluency instruction on students’ achievement in math. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing purposeful fact fluency instruction (M=27.67, SD=0.94) and after implementing (M=36.33, SD=1.25) purposeful fact fluency instruction; t(3)= 5.96, p = 0.01349. The observed effect size d is large, 3.44. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of purposeful fact fluency instruction had a positive effect on students’ ability to master multiplication facts. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of purposeful fact fluency instruction increased math achievement.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the Question-Answer Relationship strategy will increase students' reading comprehension after reading an instructional-based text.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Special Education, 5th Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy on students’ reading comprehension. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing Question-Answer Relationship strategy (M=56.5, SD=15.56) and after implementing (M=84, SD=11.73) the Question-Answer Relationship strategy; t(4)= 4.2991,, p = 0.01158. The observed standardized effect size is large (2.15). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy had a positive effect on students’ reading comprehension. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of the Question-Answer relationship strategy increased reading comprehension.

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The purpose of my study is to determine if implementing explicit evidence based phonics strategies to decode unfamiliar words will improve overall reading accuracy.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Special Education K-5

**T-Test Write-Up: ** paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of implementing explicit evidence based phonics strategies to decode unfamiliar words to improve overall reading accuracy. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=5.0, SD=0.81) and after implementing (M=8.0, SD=2.82) the summarizing strategies; t(3)=1.96, p=09425. The observed effect size d is large, 1.13. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that implementing explicit evidence based phonics strategies to decode unfamiliar words had a positive effect on students’ overall reading accuracy. Specifically, the results suggest that implementing phonics strategies to decode unfamiliar words has a positive effect on students’ overall reading accuracy.

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**Targeted Questioning Strategies **

The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of targeted questioning strategies would increase students’ reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 3rd Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of targeted questioning strategies and if they would increase students’ reading comprehension. There was a **significant** **difference** in the scores prior to implementing targeted questioning strategies **(M=59.93, SD=18.60)** and after implementing **(M=71.33,** **SD=17.50) **the targeted questioning strategies; **t(15)= 4.75, p = 0.0002**. The observed standardized effect size is **large (1.23)**. That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is **large**. These results suggest that the use of targeted questioning strategies had a **positive effect **on students’ reading comprehension. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of targeted questioning strategies **increased **students’ reading comprehension.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the strategy Read It, Build It, Write It would lead to an increase in letter sound correspondence to recognize sight words within text.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **HIgh Frequency Word Instruction

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect if the strategy Read It, Build It, Write It will lead to an increase in letter sound correspondence to recognize sight words within text. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing read it, build it, write instructional strategy (M=38.75, SD=27.580563808595) and after implementing (M=52, SD=29.077482697097) the read it, build it, write instructional strategy; t(4)= 4.4014, p = 0.01087. The observed effect size d is large, 2.2. This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of the instructional strategy Read It, Build It, Write It had a positive effect on students’ recognition of high frequency words within text. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of the instructional strategy Read It, Build It, Write It increased reading achievement.

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The purpose of my study was to determine if the use of writers workshop would enhance idea development and students' use of conventions in writing.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Literacy, 1st grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of writer's workshop instruction would increase students use of writing conventions. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing writer's workshop (M= 11.56, SD= 2.91) and after implementing the writer's workshop (M= 13.43, SD= 2.20); t(4)= 2.2839, p = 0.01868. The observed standardized effect size is medium (0.57). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that the use of writer's workshop had a positive effect on students’ writing conventions. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of writer's workshop increased students use of writing conventions.

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The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of text tagging improved students’ reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & Grade Level: **Improvement of Instruction, 4th Grade

**T-Test Write-Up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of text tagging on students’ reading comprehension skills. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing text tagging (M=7.10, SD=1.61) and after implementing (M=8.63, SD=1.26) text tagging; t(19)= 3.03, p = 0.0071. The observed standardized effect size was large (0.7). This indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 was large. These results suggest that the use of text tagging had a positive effect on students’ reading comprehension skills. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of text tagging improved students’ reading comprehension skills.