### Text Tagging and Guided Questioning

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of guided questioning and text tagging will increase reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 3rd grade

*Due to the impact of COVID-19, only some data was able to be collected as originally intended.*

**Building Phonemic Awareness**

The purpose of this study is to determine if building phonemic awareness through word work will increase student achievement in guided reading levels*.*

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 1st Grade

**T-test write up:**

*A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect building phonemic awareness through word work will increase student achievement in guided reading levels. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing word work (M= 3, SD= 2.16) and after implementing the word work (M= 11.75, SD= 2.62); t(4)= 3.888889, p = 0.0150719. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.94). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that building phonemic awareness had a positive effect on increasing student achievement in guided reading. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of word work increased guided reading level achievement.*

### Graphic Organizers

The purpose of this study is to determine if the implementation of graphic organizers will increase students' ability to grow in their.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 3rd grade

*Due to the impact of COVID-19, only some data was able to be collected as originally intended.*

**Comprehension Strategies**

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of explicit instruction of reading strategies will increase students’ overall reading comprehension of text.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 3rd grade

**T-test write up:** A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect if the use of explicit instruction of reading strategies will increase students overall reading comprehension of text. There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=65, SD=12.04) and after implementing (M=73, SD=18.73) the summarizing strategies; t(20)= 1.632993, p = 0.0594664. The observed standardized effect size is medium (0.37). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that the use of explicit instruction of reading strategies had a medium effect on increasing students’ overall reading comprehension of text.

### Goal Setting

The purpose of this study is to determine if student goal setting will increase student achievement of males in writing *as measured by district CFAs and CSAs.*

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 5th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the using student goal setting with males will increase students’ achievement in writing. There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=9.45, SD=2.02) and after implementing (M=10.45, SD=1.67) the goal setting strategies; t(11)= 1.799, p = 0.0511349. The observed standardized effect size is medium (.54). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that student goal setting with males had a medium effect on students’ achievement in writing. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of goal setting strategies with males had a medium effect on increasing overall writing achievement.

### Rationale

The purpose of this study is to determine if explicit number sense instruction will increase student achievement in fact fluency and number sense.

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine if explicit number sense instruction will increase student achievement in fact fluency and number sense.. There was a significant/not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing these strategies (M=17.16, SD=4.49) and after implementing (M=22.11, SD=2.65) thes strategies; t(19)= 6.96, p = 8.43e-7. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.60 ). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that explicit number sense instruction had a positive/no/negative effect on student achievement in fact fluency and number sense. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of explicit number sense instruction increased fact fluency and number sense.

### Questioning

The purpose of this study is to determine if intentional questioning in reading will increase student comprehension.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 2nd grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of intentional questioning in reading and its impact on student comprehension. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=55.89, SD=18.56) and after implementing (M=80.32, SD=19.85) the summarizing strategies; t(19)= 3.75, p = .00073. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.86). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of intentional questioning had a positive effect on students’ ability to comprehend while reading. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of summarizing strategies to identify the main idea increased reading achievement.

### Reading Comprehension

The purpose of this study is to determine if targeted and differentiated guided reading instruction will increase student achievement in reading comprehension as measured by text levels and MAP scores.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 1st grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of differentiated guided reading instruction and its impact on student reading comprehension. There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=73.22, SD=21.19) and after implementing (M=80.38, SD=19.83) the summarizing strategies; t(23)= 1.28, p = 0.107460. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.01). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that differentiated guided reading instruction had no effect on student’s reading comprehension. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of summarizing strategies to ask questions and identify connections increased reading achievement.

### Capstone Project

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of differentiated targeted questioning strategies after reading a text during guided reading instruction will increase students reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Special Education

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of differentiated targeted questioning strategies on students’ ability to increase reading comprehension. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=44, SD=10.19) and after implementing (M=80, SD=12.65) the summarizing strategies; t(5)= 7.06, p = 0.00106144. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.01). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of targeted questioning strategies had a positive effect on students’ ability to increase reading comprehension. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of summarizing strategies to identify the main idea increased reading achievement.

### Capstone Project

Impact of At-Home Literacy Intervention Support on Reading Achievement of Fourth-Grade Students Receiving Special Education Services.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Special Education - elementary / grades your study focused on

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of leveled readers read at home on students’ comprehension. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=84.50, SD=5.32) and after implementing (M=88.75, SD=1.64) the summarizing strategies; t(4)= 1.44, p = 0.1229. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.72). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of leveled readers used at home had a positive effect on students’ ability to identify the main idea while reading. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of at home leveled readers targeting comprehension increased reading achievement.

### Math Games and Number Sense

The purpose of this study is to determine if the consistent implementation of math games will increase student achievement in number sense.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 1st grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the consistent implementation of math games on students’ number sense abilities. There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing math games (M=20.38, SD=6.07) and after implementing (M=21.75, SD=5.83) the math games; t(16)= 1.234, p = 0.1180. The observed standardized effect size is medium (0.31). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that the consistent implementation of math games had a medium effect on students’ number sense abilities. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of consistent math games did not significantly affect students’ number sense abilities.

### Math Workshop

The purpose of this study is to determine if implementing the math workshop model will increase students’ overall achievement and engagement.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 2nd grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of implementing the math workshop model will increase students overall achievement. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=53.88, SD=31.25) and after implementing (M=85.53, SD=13.59) the summarizing strategies; t(17)=3.706260, p =0.000958430. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.90). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that implementing the math workshop model had a positive effect on students overall achievement, math fluency and engagement. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of math workshop models increased mathematical achievement.

### Alphabet Learning

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of kinesthetic literacy activities will increase students’ letter recognition abilities.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Early Childhood, Preschool Special Education

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of kinesthetic literacy activities will increase students’ letter recognition abilities. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing kinesthetic literacy activities(M=0.33, SD=0.51) and after implementing (M=3.66, SD=1.86) the kinesthetic literacy activities; t(6)= 5.423262, p = 0.00144375 The observed standardized effect size is large (2.21). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.These results suggest that kinesthetic literacy activities had a positive effect on students’ letter recognition abilities. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of summarizing strategies to identify the main idea increased reading achievement.

### Free Voluntary Reading

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of comprehensible input strategies such as FVR (free voluntary reading) will improve student achievement.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Secondary Spanish

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of free response reading on students’ achievement. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=75, SD=14.43) and after implementing (M=83.93, SD=15.49) the summarizing strategies; t(21)= 3.25, p =0.0020. The observed standardized effect size is large 0.71 That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of free response reading had a positive effect on students’ achievement in Spanish class. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of free response reading increased reading achievement.

### Number Talks

The purpose of this study is to determine if implementing number talks will increase student’s number sense and computational fluency.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary education, 2nd grade

**T-test write up: **

Results for computational fluency: The purpose of my study is to determine if implementing daily number talks will increase student’s number sense and computational fluency. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing number talks (M=17.66, SD= 7.59) and after implementing (M=23.66, SD= 5.15) number talks; t(15)= 6.375, p = 0.000008. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.65). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of number talks had a positive effect on student’s computational fluency. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of number talks increased student’s computational fluency.

Results for number sense: The purpose of my study is to determine if implementing daily number talks will increase student’s number sense and computational fluency. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing number talks (M=19.93, SD= 3.45) and after implementing (M=22.86, SD= 1.14) number talks; t(15)= 3.898, p = 0.0008. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.01). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of number talks had a positive effect on student’s number sense. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of number talks increased student’s number sense.

### Targeted Small Group Instruction to Develop Number Sense

The purpose of this study is to determine if targeted small group instruction will increase student achievement in math regarding number sense.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary Education-Kindergarten Getting masters in early childhood

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect targeted small group instruction on student achievement in math regarding number sense.. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing targeted small group instruction (M=3.8, SD=1.17) and after implementing (M=6, SD=1.67) targeted small group instruction; t(5)= 2.56, p =0.0314038 . The observed standardized effect size is large (1.14). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.These results suggest that targeted small group instruction had a positive effect on Specifically, the results suggest that the use of targeted small group instruction increased student achievement in math regarding number sense.

### Token Economy

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of a token reward system willdecrease the amount of elopement, physical aggression, physical disruption, and verbal disruption.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Preschool, Special Education

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect a token economy reward system will decrease the amount of elopement, physical aggression, physical disruption, and verbal disruption. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing the token economy reward system. (M=45.42, SD=25.75) and after implementing (M=13, SD=11.92) the token economy reward system; t(12)= -5.31, p = 0.000124506. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.53). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.These results suggest that the use of a token economy reward system had a positive effect on decreasing the amount of elopement, verbal disruption, physical disruption, and physical aggression inside of the classroom. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of a token economy reward system decreased the amount of elopement, verbal disruption, physical disruption, and physical aggression inside of the classroom

### Social and Emotional Learning

The purpose of this study is to determine if social-emotional skills instruction would improve competencies in social-emotional development and self-regulation during peer interactions.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 6th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of social-emotional skills instruction to improve competencies in social-emotional development and self-regulation during peer interactions. There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=17.25, SD=2.63) and after implementing (M=17.79, SD=2.51) the social-emotional learning strategies; t(21)= 0.5, p =0.314355. The observed standardized effect size is small (0.13). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is small. These results suggest that the use of social-emotional skills instruction had a positive effect on competencies in social-emotional development and self-regulation during peer interactions. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of social-emotional skills instruction improved competencies in social-emotional development and self-regulation during peer interactions.

### Growth Mindset Strategies

The purpose of this study is to determine if implementing growth mindset strategies in a writer’s workshop model will impact students’ ability to persevere in writing tasks and improve achievement for students in the subject area of writing.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 2nd grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect implementing growth mindset strategies in a writer’s workshop model would impact students’ ability to persevere in writing tasks and improve achievement for students in the subject area of writing*.* There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=9.57, SD=2.61) and after implementing (M=12,14, SD=1.64) the summarizing strategies; t(16)= 3.99, p =0.0007. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.07). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of growth mindset strategies had a positive effect on *students’ ability to persevere in writing tasks and improve writing achievement.. *Specifically, the results suggest that the implementation of growth mindset strategies increased student’s achievement.

### Peer Conferencing in Writing

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of peer conferencing will increase student achievement in writing.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 1st grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of peer conferencing will increase student achievement in writing. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=15.66, SD=1.92) and after implementing (M=20.23, SD=1.74) the summarizing strategies; t(21)= 14.03295, p = 00000000000.4085 The observed standardized effect size is large (3.06). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of peer conferencing in writing had a positive effect on student achievement in writing. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of peer conferencing increased writing achievement.

### Math Talk Moves Increasing Students' Number Sense

The purpose of this study is to determine if using math talk moves will increase student achievement in their number sense skills.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Secondary Math, 9th and 10th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of math talk moves on students’ ability to increase their number sense skills. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing math talk moves (M=1.63, SD=0.85) and after implementing (M=2.64, SD=1.15) the math talk moves; t(72)=7.43 , p = 0.00000000009. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.88). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that if using math talk moves had a positive effect on students’ ability to increase their number sense skills. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of math talk moves to determine the validity of their answers.

### Effects of Summarizing

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of summarizing strategies will increase student ability in determining the main idea of a text.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Secondary English, 9th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of summarizing strategies on students’ ability in determining the main idea of a text. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=1.34, SD=.54) and after implementing (M=2.97, SD=1.03) the summarizing strategies; t(29)= 10.64, p = 1.19371e-11. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.98). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of summarizing strategies had a positive effect on students’ ability to identify the main idea of a text. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of summarizing strategies to identify the main idea increased reading achievement.

### Guided Math

The purpose of this study is to determine if the implementation of small group differentiated instruction paired with reteaching strategies will increase student achievement in math.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 2nd Grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of implementing small group differentiated instruction paired with reteaching strategies and its impact on student achievement in mathematics. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=3.67, SD= 2.43) and after implementing (M=10.5, SD=1.95) the summarizing strategies; t(18)= 13.67, p = 6.72e-11. The observed standardized effect size is large (3.22). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the implementation of small group differentiated instruction paired with reteaching strategies had a positive effect on students’ achievement in mathematics. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of small group differentiated instruction paired with reteaching strategies increased reading achievement

### Sight Word Reciprocity

The purpose of this study is to determine if implementing sight word games and goal setting strategies will improve students’ application of sight words when reading grade level text and writing independently.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 1st Grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of implementing sight word games and goal setting strategies will improve students’ application of sight words when reading grade level text. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=82.45, SD=22.96) and after implementing (M=95.3, SD=10.83) the summarizing strategies; t(20)= 4.04, p = 0.0003. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.90). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.These results suggest that the use of sight word strategies had a positive effect on students’ application of sight words when reading grade level text.

Specifically, the results suggest that the use of goal setting sheets and games practicing sight words in isolation helped to improve the accuracy of sight words in grade level text which in turn helped to improve individual reading levels.

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of implementing sight word games and goal setting strategies will improve students’ application writing independently. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=62, SD=23.92) and after implementing (M=85.75, SD=18. 59) the summarizing strategies; t(20)= 6.10, p = 0.000004. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.36). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of sight word strategies had a positive effect on students’ application writing independently.

Specifically, the results suggest that the use of goal setting sheets and games practicing sight words in isolation helped to improve the accuracy of sight words when in the context of a sentence which in turn helped to improve writing independently.

### Number Talks

The purpose of this study is to see if the implementation of number talks will improve students’ growth in number sense.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 3rd grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect if the implementation of number talks will improve students’ growth in number sense. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing number talks (M=0.25, SD=0.43) and after implementing (M=0.55, SD=0.50) the number talks; t(20)= 2.35, p = 0.0149076.The observed standardized effect size is medium (0.53). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that the use of number talks had a positive effect on students’ number sense. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of number talks during math instruction increased number sense.

### Reciprocity Between Reading and Writing

The purpose of this study is to determine if the using strategies to improve reciprocity will increase student’s reading and writing achievement.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 2nd Grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect if the use of strategies to improve reciprocity will increase student’s reading and writing achievement.. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=30.55 SD=16.83) and after implementing (M=54.22 SD=23.85) the summarizing strategies; t(9)= 4.91, p = 0.0005. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.64). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large.. These results suggest that the use of strategies to improve reciprocity had a positive effect on students’ reading and writing achievement. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of strategies will increase student’s reading and writing achievement.

### Capstone Project

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of purposeful accountability tasks will increase student motivation and reading engagement and achievement during independent reading time.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 6th Grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the use of purposeful accountability tasks will increase student motivation, engagement, and achievement during independent reading time. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=15.00, SD=12.91) and after implementing (M=77.50, SD=12.58) the summarizing strategies; t(4)=25, p = 0.00007. The observed standardized effect size is large (12.50). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of purposeful accountability tasks had a positive effect on students’ motivation, engagement, and achievement during independent reading time. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of goal setting and personalized, independent tasks increased reading motivation, engagement, and achievement.

### Comprehension Strategies

The purpose of this study is to determine if explicit instruction of targeted reading strategies during guided reading groups will increase student achievement and self-regulation use in reading comprehension.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 1st Grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect explicit instruction of targeted reading strategies during guided reading groups will increase student achievement and self-regulation use in reading comprehension. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=53.64, SD=25.14) and after implementing (M=72.73, SD=25.97) the summarizing strategies; t(22)= 2.51, p = 0.0102. The observed standardized effect size is medium (0.53). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is medium. These results suggest that explicit instruction of targeted reading strategies during guided reading groups had a positive effect on will increase student achievement and self-regulation use in reading comprehension. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of comprehension strategies increased reading achievement and self-regulation.

### Capstone Project

The purpose of this study is to determine if teaching sight words using multisensory strategies will increase sight word recognition.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Elementary, 1st Grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of teaching sight words using multisensory strategies *will increase sight word recognition.* There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing multisensory strategies (M=6.67, SD=4.93) and after implementing (M=23, SD=3) the multisensory strategies; t(3)= 11.24, p = 0.0039. The observed standardized effect size is large (6.49). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that teaching sight words using multisensory strategies had a positive effect on *increasing sight word recognition. *Specifically, the results suggest that teaching sight words using multisensory strategies increased sight word recognition.

### Productive Group Work

The purpose of this study is to determine if a Productive Group Work model will build a culture of engagement and community among my students leading to increased student achievement.

**Endorsement & grade level :** Secondary Family and Consumer Sciences

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect a Productive Group Work model will build a culture of engagement and community among my students leading to increased student achievement. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=57.04, SD=14.03) and after implementing (M=91.36, SD=7.71) the summarizing strategies; t(24)= 12.49, p =0.000000000049. The observed standardized effect size is large (2.55). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of a Productive Group Work model had a positive effect on the culture of engagement and community among my students. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of a Productive Group Work model to engage students and build a culture of community increased student achievement.

### Capstone Project

The purpose of this study is to determine if the specific instructional strategies used during WIN time will increase students’ math skills to meet the district’s priority math standards.

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of the specific instructional strategies used during WIN time will increase students’ math skills to meet the district’s priority math standards.There was not a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing instructional strategies (M=80.2, SD=19.59) and after implementing (M=85.2, SD=15.40) the instructional strategies; t(10)= 0.89, p = 0.19. The observed standardized effect size is small (0.28). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is small. These results suggest that the use of specific instructional strategies used during WIN time had no effect on students’ math skills to meet the district’s priority math standards. Specifically, the results suggest that the specific instructional strategies used during WIN time increased math skills achievement.

### Written Communication in Math

The purpose of this study is to determine if the inclusion of verbal and written communication strategies will increase students’ ability to communicate their mathematical understanding.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 3rd grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine if the inclusion of verbal and written communication strategies will increase students’ ability to communicate their mathematical understanding. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing verbal and written communication strategies (M=47.73, SD=21.53) and after implementing (M=76.59, SD=9.46) the verbal and written communication strategies; t(22)= 6.73, p = 0.000000590237. The observed standardized effect size is large (1.43). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the inclusion of verbal and written communication strategies had a positive effect on students’ ability to communicate their mathematical understanding. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of verbal and written communication strategies increased students’ mathematical understanding.

### Social and Emotional Learning

The purpose of this study is to determine if targeted social and emotional skills instruction will improve behaviors including self regulation, peer to peer communication, and conflict resolution.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 6th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of social and emotional strategies on students’ ability to use strategies taught during instruction in everyday situations. There was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing summarizing strategies (M=17.5, SD=2.897042827239) and after implementing (M=17.28571485714, SD=1.7496355305594) the summarizing strategies; t(14)= 0.897758, p = 0.193486. The observed standardized effect size is small (0.25). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is small. These results suggest that the use of social and emotional strategies had a positive effect on students’ ability to use social and emotional strategies to improve peer to peer communication, conflict resolution, and self regulation strategies. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of social and emotional strategies can be used to improve student behavior in the classroom through skill development.

### Guided Math Rotations

The purpose of this study is to determine if guided math rotations would increase fact fluency, student engagement, and overall academic achievement in math.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 5th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect guided math rotations would increase overall academic achievement in math. After analyzing pre-test and post-test data for Topic 6, there was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing math rotations (M=39.23, SD=23.44) and after implementing math rotations (M=94.88, SD=6.51); t(17)= 8.54, p= .000000116. The observed standardized effect size is large (2.07). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that implementing math rotations had a positive effect on academic achievement in math. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of math rotations increased achievement in math.

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect guided math rotations would increase overall academic achievement in math. After analyzing pre-test and post-test data for Topic 15, there was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing math rotations (M=52.13, SD=26.84) and after implementing math rotations (M=100, SD= < .001); t(17)= 8.54, p= .000000116. The observed standardized effect size is large (2.07). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that implementing math rotations had a positive effect on academic achievement in math. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of math rotations increased achievement in math.

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect guided math rotations would increase overall academic achievement in math. After analyzing pre-test and post-test data for Topic 17 there was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing math rotations (M=60.32, SD=26.84) and after implementing math rotations (M=98, SD= < .001); t(17)= 8.54, p= .000000116. The observed standardized effect size is large (2.07). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that implementing math rotations had a positive effect on academic achievement in math. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of math rotations increased achievement in math.

### Differentiated Instruction

The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of small group differentiated instruction will improve student achievement and engagement in math.

**Endorsement & grade level : **Elementary, 4th grade

**T-test write up: **A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of small group differentiated instruction on students’ achievement in math. After analyzing pre-test and post-test data for Chapter 7 there was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing differentiation strategies (M=2.6363636363636, SD=1.4316377952749) and after implementing differentiation strategies (M=3.6363636363636, SD=0.56772709076349); t(22)= 3.316624, p = 0.00163998. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.71). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of differentiated instruction had a positive effect on students’ achievement in math. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of small group differentiated instruction increased math achievement.

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of small group differentiated instruction on students’ achievement in math. After analyzing pre-test and post-test data for Chapter 8 there was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing differentiation strategies (M=2.59, SD=1.37) and after implementing differentiation strategies (M=3.5, SD=0.72); t(22)= 3.360109, p = 0.00148132. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.72). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of differentiated instruction had a positive effect on students’ achievement in math. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of small group differentiated instruction increased math achievement.

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of small group differentiated instruction on students’ achievement in math. After analyzing pre-test and post-test data for Chapter 9 there was a significant difference in the scores prior to implementing differentiation strategies (M=2.77, SD=1.31) and after implementing differentiation strategies (M=3.90, SD=0.28); t(22)= 4.278487, p = 0.000166917. The observed standardized effect size is large (0.91). That indicates that the magnitude of the difference between the average and μ0 is large. These results suggest that the use of differentiated instruction had a positive effect on students’ achievement in math. Specifically, the results suggest that the use of small group differentiated instruction increased math achievement.