# Course Descriptions

## UNO Course Descriptions

This is the UNO real time up to date course description database. To use, choose the college of the class you are inquiring about. Then pick which department it belongs to. Finally locate the class to view its description.

## Physics

This is the UNO real time up to date course descriptions for the Physics (UNO) Department.

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##### PHYS 1030: Physics of Everyday Life

A conceptual course in the principles of physics and their relationship to man and his environment. Topics included relate the basic laws of physics and recent developments in science to their effects on man. This course is intended for students not majoring in the sciences and may be used in partial fulfillment of the natural science requirement.

**Credits:**3**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**High School algebra or equivalent.

##### PHYS 1034: Physics of Everyday Life Laboratory

A physics laboratory consisting of a series of concise experiments which relate man directly to his physical environment.

**Credits:**1**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**High school algebra or equivalent; PHYS 1030, prior or concurrent.

##### PHYS 1050: Introduction to Physics

A terminal one-semester course covering major topics in mechanics, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, light and modern physics. Designed particularly for non-science liberal arts majors or others for whom such a one-semester coverage might be deemed adequate. (Does not count towards physics requirement for chemistry, physics and most engineering majors.)

**Credits:**4**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**High school algebra or equivalent.

##### PHYS 1054: Introduction to Physics Laboratory

A series of concise experiments on varied topics in physics, such as scientific sampling, optics, elasticity, motion, sound, light and electricity are covered in this one-semester course. Emphasis is placed on data collection and graphing, and error reduction.

**Credits:**1**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**High school algebra or equivalent; PHYS 1050, prior or concurrent, or permission of the instructor

##### PHYS 1110: General Physics I with Algebra

First part of a two-semester continuing course designed for students with no prior background in physics. Mechanics, heat and sound are covered in this semester.

**Credits:**4**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**MATH 1310 or equivalent, or MPE score above 2.

##### PHYS 1120: General Physics

Second part of a two-semester continuing course designed for students with no prior background in physics. Electricity and magnetism, light, and a little modern physics are covered.

**Credits:**4**Prereq:**PHYS 1110 or permission.

##### PHYS 1154: General Physics Laboratory I

One-semester laboratory course for students enrolled in PHYS 1110 or PHYS 2110. Covers experiments in mechanics, wave motion and heat.

**Credits:**1**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**PHYS 1110 or PHYS 2110, prior or concurrent.

##### PHYS 1164: General Physics Laboratory II

One-semester laboratory course for students enrolled in PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120. Second semester covers experiments in electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120, prior or concurrent.

##### PHYS 1350: Principles of Astronomy

An introductory course that satisfies divisional requirements in natural science. Topics discussed include the night sky, gravity, telescopes, atoms and radiation, the solar system, the sun and stars, and cosmology.

**Credits:**3**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**High school algebra or equivalent.

##### PHYS 1354: Introductory Astronomy Lab

Laboratory sessions acquaint students with basic phenomena, methods and data acquisition in astronomy. By use of the experiments, students will be able to explore and add to what has been discussed in lecture. Several night-observing sessions will also be available for students to use telescopes.

**Credits:**1**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**PHYS 1350 prior or concurrent.

##### PHYS 1750: Fundamental Physics of Sound

A course designed for music and communication majors. It covers transmission of sound, wave motion, pitch, quality, sound synthesis, acoustics, resonance, interference, musical scales, string and wind instruments, recording and reproduction of sound. Three lectures and one discussion per week.

**Credits:**4**Prereq:**High school algebra or equivalent.

##### PHYS 1754: Fundamental Physics of Sound Laboratory

A laboratory that accompanies PHYS 1750. The experiments are coordinated with the music-related portions of lecture course. The laboratory is designed for music majors.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**PHYS 1750 prior or concurrent and music major or permission of instructor.

##### PHYS 1950: Physics Gateway Course

Designed for first year physics majors, a one-semester introduction to concepts and tools to be encountered and used in earning a physics degree.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**High school algebra or equivalent.

##### PHYS 2030: Energy and Fuels

This one semester course focuses on energy from a macroscopic perspective. Viewpoints based on the law of physics are distinguished from unsupported opinion. Topics include: electricity production and consumption; mineral and fossil fuel resources; nuclear, solar, fossil fuel and biomass energies; pollution, conservation and recycling; extrapolation and interconnections.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1310, minimum of PHYS 1050.

##### PHYS 2040: Radiation Fundamentals

This one-semester course examines the ways radiation affects our daily lives. Topics include: structure of matter and types of radiation, half-life and activity, biological effects of radiation, radiation standards and protection, uses of isotopes and radiation, nuclear wastes life-cycle, nature of risk versus benefit, dose calculations and shielding fundamentals.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1310, minimum of PHYS 1050.

##### PHYS 2110: General Physics I - Calculus Level

First part of a two-semester continuing course for students majoring in some area of science, mathematics or engineering. Mechanics, molecular properties of matter and heat are covered in the first semester.

**Credits:**4**General Education Area:**Natural and Physical Science**Prereq:**MATH 1950 (MATH 1930 for Geology majors) or permission of the instructor. High school physics or PHYS 1050 is recommended.

##### PHYS 2120: General Physics-Calculus Level

Second part of a two-semester continuing course for students majoring in some area of science, mathematics or engineering. Wave motion, electricity, magnetism and light are considered during the second semester.

**Credits:**4**Prereq:**PHYS 2110 and MATH 1960 (MATH 1930 for Geology majors) or permission of the instructor.

##### PHYS 2130: Modern Physics

The course is composed of introductions to special relativity theory and quantum theory with applications to atomic and nuclear structure. Quantum mechanical topics include: Planck radiation law; Compton Effect; photoelectric effect; the Rutherford experiments and Bohr model of the atom; the Schroedinger electronic structure of atoms; nuclear reactions, nuclear models, radioactive decay, fission, fusion and elementary particles.

**Credits:**4**Prereq:**PHYS 2110, PHYS 2120, MATH 1950, & MATH 1960; or permission.

##### PHYS 2350: Special Topics in Astronomy: Observational Astronomy

This one semester course emphasizes personal study of the sky, including observing, measuring and recording celestial positions. Students will be shown how to observe and measure the Sun, the Moon, visible planets, and stars, and how to document astronomical observations. Students will be required to study outdoors on their own and will also use the department's observing facilities.

**Credits:**2-3**Prereq:**PHYS 1350 or instructor permission.

##### PHYS 3050: The Philosophy of Space Exploration

This course deals mainly with the justification of space exploration in the face of conflicting needs. Topics to be studied include objections to the space program and responses to them, spin-off benefits, space industrialization, planetary and interstellar exploration, space colonies, search for life elsewhere, and other related theoretical issues.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**For PHYS 3050; junior or permission of instructor. For PHYS 8055; graduate or permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8055

##### PHYS 3150: Modern Developments in Physics

A resume of the most important discoveries, changes and new concepts gleaned from the last decade of research in physics. Superconductivity, lasers, masers, superfluidity, ultra large magnetic fields, space plasmas, nuclear fusion power, etc. Designed for updating physical science concepts for science majors and for science teachers.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120.**Cross List:**PHYS-8155

##### PHYS 3160: Current Topics in Science

The subject matter of this course will generally not be presented in a standard physics course and may be of an interdisciplinary nature. The specific topics and prerequisites will be listed in the schedule.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**Permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8165

##### PHYS 3250: Mathematical Methods of Physics

Training in the use of mathematical techniques applicable to physics problems encountered in upper-level physics courses. Vector operators, Fourier analysis, frequently used differential equations (ordinary and partial), orthogonal functions, and matrix methods of coordinate transformation are included. Emphasis is given to solving problems from mechanics such as vectoral mechanics, oscillatory systems, wave motion, potential theory, etc.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1950, 1960, 1970 and PHYS 2160 or 2120 or permission.

##### PHYS 3260: Computer Tools for Physicists

This course will introduce a wide selection of computer-powered mathematical tools for doing physics or any upper level science courses. It will introduce software packages in real and complex algebra, trigonometry, calculus I & II, linear algebra, statistics, differential equations, special functions, graphics, document preparation, and programming in the manner of a research scientist.

**Credits:**2**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1960.

##### PHYS 3300: Introduction to Biomedical Physics

This course is designed primarily for students desiring to specialize in Biomedical Physics. The course emphasizes an understanding of the fundamental principles of physics and the use of these principles in a variety of biological and medical applications with the major goal to merge physics, biology, and medicine in a uniﬁed perspective. PHYS 3300 covers various topics relating basic physics to living systems, including mechanics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, sound, electricity, optics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and nanotechnology. It also describes various technologies widely used in modern medicine such as laser surgery, ultrasound imaging, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Each topic briefly introduces related background of physics principles as well as comprehensive overview of biological/medical application, thus (although highly recommended) very little background in physics or biology is required. This course will benefit students with interests in medicine, biology, biophysics, or medical physics.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS1110 is required. PHYS2110 and PHYS1120/PHYS2120 are recommended.

##### PHYS 3450: Classical Mechanics

Statics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies including the equations of Lagrange and Hamilton.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1970, PHYS 3250 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-8455

##### PHYS 3500: Elements of Electronics

The topics covered will include basic circuit theory, principles and operation of electronic devices such as diodes, transistors and integrated circuits. Application of these devices in various electronic circuits. Both analog and digital circuitry will be studied.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1970.**Cross List:**PHYS-8505

##### PHYS 3504: Experimental Physics I

A set of experiments designed to complement PHYS 3750 and PHYS 4200.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**PHYS 2120.

##### PHYS 3524: Experimental Physics II

A set of experiments designed to complement PHYS 3760 and PHYS 4210.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**PHYS 2120.

##### PHYS 3544: Experimental Physics III

A set of experiments designed to complement PHYS 3450, PHYS 3850, and PHYS 4200.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**PHYS 2120.

##### PHYS 3564: Experimental Physics IV

A set of experiments designed to complement PHYS 3020 and PHYS 4220.

**Credits:**1**Prereq:**PHYS 2120.

##### PHYS 3600: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Topics include: empirical and absolute temperature, equations of state, work, heat, entropy, the four laws of thermodynamics, phase changes, thermodynamic potentials, classical and quantum statistics of an ideal gas. Applications to be included: Einstein theory of a solid, paramagnetism, blackbody radiation, and conduction electrons.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and MATH 1970.**Cross List:**PHYS-8605

##### PHYS 3750: Electricity and Magnetism I

An advanced study of electrostatics and magnetostatics, including Coulomb's law, Gauss' law, the scalar potential, conductors and dielectrics, electrostatic energy, special methods, electric current, Ampere's law, the magnetic induction, Faraday's law, and the electromagnetic wave equation as obtained from Maxwell's equations, with simple examples such as transmission lines and antennas.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1950, MATH 1960, MATH 1970, PHYS 3250, or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-8755

##### PHYS 3760: Electricity and Magnetism II

A selection of more advanced topics from electromagnetic theory, including a deeper treatment of the electromagnetic wave equations derived from Maxwell's equations, extending to propagation, reflection and refraction of plane waves, waves in wave guides, and radiation. Other topics covered might be magnetism and magnetic energy, plasmas and special relativity.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 3750.**Cross List:**PHYS-8765

##### PHYS 3800: Optics

The behavior of electromagnetic radiation as formulated in the ray, wave, and quantum models. Topics will include: reflection and refraction, vergence, matrix method, optical instruments, scalar waves, electromagnetic waves, blackbody radiation, interference, diffraction, and lasers; if time permits, fiber optics and holography will also be included.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1970.**Cross List:**PHYS-8805

##### PHYS 4200: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

This course provides an introduction to the historical development of modern physics and to the Schroedinger formulation of quantum mechanics. Specific topics will include square wells potential barriers, the simple harmonic oscillator potential and the hydrogen atom. Characteristics of multi-electron atoms, including angular momentum coupling schemes, spectra and transition rules will also be included.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 3250 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-8206

##### PHYS 4210: Quantum Theory

The matrix operator formalism is covered along with philosophical implications of this approach. The methods developed will be applied to simple harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom potentials. Raising and lowering operators, creation-annihilation operators, and first and second order perturbation theory will be discussed.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 4200 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-8216

##### PHYS 4220: Physics of Molecules and Solids

This course covers the various types of atomic bonding found in molecules and solids. Electronic energy levels and spectra of molecules will be discussed. Topics in solid state physics will include mechanics and thermodynamics of crystals, the scattering of waves, including x-ray and neutron scattering, electron scattering and phonon and photon interactions.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 4200 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-8226

##### PHYS 4230: Special Relativity and Nuclear Physics

This course includes a brief historical background of the development of relativity theory and the importance of the experiments performed in conjunction with it. Lorentz transformations and covariant formalism will be developed and applied to certain problems in mechanics and electricity and magnetism. The nuclear physics portion of the course will include the historical development of the concept of the nuclear atom. Theoretical models of nuclear structure will be discussed, along with the theory of alpha, beta and gamma decay. Fission and fusion discussed as time permits.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 4200 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-8236

##### PHYS 4300: General Relativity

A study of general relativity theory and its leading applications. Physical motivations and conceptual foundations will be explored. Students will be guided step-by-step to mastery of the tensor analysis required by this theory. Topics covered will include the equivalence principle, recap of special relativity, tensors, curvature and geodesics, Einstein field equations, black holes, cosmology, and gravitational waves.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**UG: PHYS 3750 and PHYS 4230, or permission of instructor. G: PHYS 3750 and PHYS 4230, or permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8306

##### PHYS 4350: Astrophysics

This course introduces the fundamentals of astrophysics to students with a prior knowledge of physics and mathematics. A review will be given of light and telescopes, classical and quantum mechanics and special relativity. Basic laws of physics will be applied to various topics such as the sun, nuclear fusion and particle physics, evolution and end state of stars, interstellar medium, galaxies and cosmology.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 2130 or 4200 and MATH 1970. Recommended: PHYS 1350.**Cross List:**PHYS-8356

##### PHYS 4400: Geophysics

A study of geophysical techniques used to understand the earth and in resource exploration. Seismic, gravity, heat flow, magnetic and other methods will be presented. The insights from these methods into earthquake events, stress distributions, rock, rheology, and plate tectonics will also be addressed. Interpretive skills will be emphasized.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**GEOL 1170, PHYS 1110 and MATH 1950, MATH 1960 or permission of instructor.

##### PHYS 4500: Biological Physics

This course is designed primarily for students specializing in Biomedical Physics. As a part of Biomedical Physics program at the Department of Physics, the course introduces the fundamental principles of physics and the use of these principles for various biological applications. PHYS 4500 covers various topics including cells, polymers, polyelectrolytes, membranes, mesoscopic forces, self-assembly, photonics, fluid mechanics, motility, chemical kinetics, enzyme kinetics, modern experimental techniques of biophysics. Each topic connects biomolecules with their functions and relevant biological phenomena from a physics perspective. This course will benefit students with interests in biological and medical physics, as well as chemistry, biology, and biomedical engineering.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS1110 & PHYS1120 is required. PHYS2110 & PHYS2120 and PHYS 3300 are recommended.

##### PHYS 4550: Physics in Medicine

This course is designed primarily for students desiring to specialize in Biomedical Physics. The course introduces principles and applications of various medical imaging modalities and medical physics based therapies. Topics include such imaging techniques as ultrasound, X-ray imaging, Computed Tomography (CT), MRI imaging, and positron emission tomography. The course discusses physical principles behind medical imaging and therapeutic applications and covers interaction of different kinds of radiation with biological matter.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 2110 and PHYS 2120 for Physics majors or permission of the instructor. PHYS 4500 is recommended.

##### PHYS 4800: Internship

Internship with agencies or corporations enabling students to gain knowledge and experience in practical applications of physics and/or environmental principles.

**Credits:**1-6**Prereq:**Junior or senior standing. Permission.

##### PHYS 4950: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4960

##### PHYS 4950: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8956

##### PHYS 4950: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8966

##### PHYS 4960: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4950

##### PHYS 4960: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8956

##### PHYS 4960: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8966

##### PHYS 8055: The Philosophy of Space Exploration

This course deals mainly with the justification of space exploration in the face of conflicting needs. Topics to be studied include objections to the space program and responses to them, spin-off benefits, space industrialization, planetary and interstellar exploration, space colonies, search for life elsewhere, and other related theoretical issues.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**For PHYS 3050; junior or permission of instructor. For PHYS 8055; graduate or permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-3050

##### PHYS 8155: Modern Developments in Physics

A resume of the most important discoveries, changes and new concepts gleaned from the last decade of research in physics. Superconductivity, lasers, masers, superfluidity, ultra large magnetic fields, space plasmas, nuclear fusion power, etc. Designed for updating physical science concepts for science majors and for science teachers.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120.**Cross List:**PHYS-3150

##### PHYS 8165: Current Topics in Science

The subject matter of this course will generally not be presented in a standard physics course and may be of an interdisciplinary nature. The specific topics and prerequisites will be listed in the schedule.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**Permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-3160

##### PHYS 8206: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

This course provides an introduction to the historical development of modern physics and to the Schroedinger formulation of quantum mechanics. Specific topics will include square wells potential barriers, the simple harmonic oscillator potential and the hydrogen atom. Characteristics of multi-electron atoms, including angular momentum coupling schemes, spectra and transition rules will also be included.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 3250 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-4200

##### PHYS 8216: Quantum Theory

The matrix operator formalism is covered along with philosophical implications of this approach. The methods developed will be applied to simple harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom potentials. Raising and lowering operators, creation-annihilation operators, and first and second order perturbation theory will be discussed.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 4200 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-4210

##### PHYS 8226: Physics of Molecules and Solids

This course covers the various types of atomic bonding found in molecules and solids. Electronic energy levels and spectra of molecules will be discussed. Topics in solid state physics will include mechanics and thermodynamics of crystals, the scattering of waves, including x-ray and neutron scattering, electron scattering and phonon and photon interactions.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 4200 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-4220

##### PHYS 8236: Special Relativity and Nuclear Physics

This course includes a brief historical background of the development of relativity theory and the importance of the experiments performed in conjunction with it. Lorentz transformations and covariant formalism will be developed and applied to certain problems in mechanics and electricity and magnetism. The nuclear physics portion of the course will include the historical development of the concept of the nuclear atom. Theoretical models of nuclear structure will be discussed, along with the theory of alpha, beta and gamma decay. Fission and fusion discussed as time permits.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 4200/8206 or permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4230

##### PHYS 8306: General Relativity

A study of general relativity theory and its leading applications. Physical motivations and conceptual foundations will be explored. Students will be guided step-by-step to mastery of the tensor analysis required by this theory. Topics covered will include the equivalence principle, recap of special relativity, tensors, curvature and geodesics, Einstein field equations, black holes, cosmology, and gravitational waves.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**UG: PHYS 3750 and PHYS 4230, or permission of instructor. G: PHYS 3750 and PHYS 4230, or permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4300

##### PHYS 8356: Astrophysics

This course introduces the fundamentals of astrophysics to students with a prior knowledge of physics and mathematics. A review will be given of light and telescopes, classical and quantum mechanics and special relativity. Basic laws of physics will be applied to various topics such as the sun, nuclear fusion and particle physics, evolution and end state of stars, interstellar medium, galaxies and cosmology.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 2130 or 4200 and MATH 1970. Recommended: PHYS 1350.**Cross List:**PHYS-4350

##### PHYS 8455: Classical Mechanics

Statics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies including the equations of Lagrange and Hamilton.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1970, PHYS 3250 or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-3450

##### PHYS 8505: Elements of Electronics

The topics covered will include basic circuit theory, principles and operation of electronic devices such as diodes, transistors and integrated circuits. Application of these devices in various electronic circuits. Both analog and digital circuitry will be studied.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1970.**Cross List:**PHYS-3500

##### PHYS 8605: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Topics include: empirical and absolute temperature, equations of state, work, heat, entropy, the four laws of thermodynamics, phase changes, thermodynamic potentials, classical and quantum statistics of an ideal gas. Applications to be included: Einstein theory of a solid, paramagnetism, blackbody radiation, and conduction electrons.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and MATH 1970.**Cross List:**PHYS-3600

##### PHYS 8755: Electricity and Magnetism I

An advanced study of electrostatics and magnetostatics, including Coulomb's law, Gauss' law, the scalar potential, conductors and dielectrics, electrostatic energy, special methods, electric current, Ampere's law, the magnetic induction, Faraday's law, and the electromagnetic wave equation as obtained from Maxwell's equations, with simple examples such as transmission lines and antennas.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**MATH 1950, MATH 1960, MATH 1970, PHYS 3250, or permission.**Cross List:**PHYS-3750

##### PHYS 8765: Electricity and Magnetism II

A selection of more advanced topics from electromagnetic theory, including a deeper treatment of the electromagnetic wave equations derived from Maxwell's equations, extending to propagation, reflection and refraction of plane waves, waves in wave guides, and radiation. Other topics covered might be magnetism and magnetic energy, plasmas and special relativity.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 3750.**Cross List:**PHYS-3760

##### PHYS 8805: Optics

The behavior of electromagnetic radiation as formulated in the ray, wave, and quantum models. Topics will include: reflection and refraction, vergence, matrix method, optical instruments, scalar waves, electromagnetic waves, blackbody radiation, interference, diffraction, and lasers; if time permits, fiber optics and holography will also be included.

**Credits:**3**Prereq:**PHYS 1120 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1970.**Cross List:**PHYS-3800

##### PHYS 8956: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4950

##### PHYS 8956: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4960

##### PHYS 8956: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8966

##### PHYS 8960: Topics in the Teaching of Natural Science

This course is for K-12 science teachers with emphasis on content appropriate to the educational standards of the State of Nebraska and the National Science Education Standards. Teaching methodologies and technologies will be integrated with the subject matter. The format varies but is that of a workshop using lecture, individual mentoring, group study, laboratory exercises and presentations. The number of credits offered will vary.

**Credits:**1-4**Prereq:**Permission of Instructor.

##### PHYS 8966: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4950

##### PHYS 8966: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-4960

##### PHYS 8966: Problems in Physics

Individual laboratory and/or library work, or reading course in some field of physics.

**Credits:**1-3**Prereq:**PHYS 2120 and permission of instructor.**Cross List:**PHYS-8956

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