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KENNETH DEFFENBACHER

Emeritus Professor of Psychology

University of Nebraska at Omaha

Omaha, NE 68182

(402) 554-2419

kdeffenbacher@unomaha.edu

 

 

Educational Background

University of Washington - Doctor of Philosophy (1968)

University of Washington (Seattle), Bachelor of Science (1964)

 

Professional Experience

University of Nebraska at Omaha Emeritus Professor, 2009-

University of Nebraska at Omaha Chairman, 1980-2009

University of Nebraska at Omaha Professor, 1976-2009

University of Nebraska at Omaha Associate Professor, 1971-1976

University of Nebraska at Omaha Assistant Professor, 1968-1971

 

Research Interests

Visual perception and memory, particularly that for the human face; behavior of eye- and earwitnesses; cognition and affect, particularly the effects of negative emotionality on memory; history of psychology, particularly late 19th and early 20th century experimental psychology, basic and applied.

 

Professional Societies

American Psychological Association: Divisions 1 (General Psychology), 2 (Teaching of Psychology), 3 (Experimental Psychology), 26 (History of Psychology), 41 (Law and Psychology), Association for Psychological Science, Midwestern Psychological Association, Psychonomic Society, Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

 

Editorial Boards

Journal of Applied Psychology: 1994-2002, Consulting Editor

Cognitive Technology : 1996-2004, Consulting Editor

 

Ad Hoc Reviewer

Applied Cognitive Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Law and Human Behavior, Memory & Cognition, Perception & Psychophysics, Perceptual and Motor Skills, Psychological Review, Psychological Science, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Review of General Psychology.

 

Honors and Awards

. Fellow of the American Psychological Association (2009)

. Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science (2008)

. University of Nebraska Award for Distinguished Research or Creative Activity (2004)

. Nebraska Foundation Professorship: Regents’ Professor (1980)

. Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi

 

Grants

Clark, F.J., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (1987-89). Role of memory in human kinesthesia. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. $89,823 in direct costs.

Clark, F.J., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (1990-93). Neural mechanisms of position sense. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. $319,333 in total costs.

O’Toole, A.J., Deffenbacher, K.A., & Abdi, H. (1994-99). A perceptual learning theory of the information in faces. National Institute of Mental Health. $340,366 in direct costs.

 

Paper Presentations

Deffenbacher, K. A. (2007, March). Memory for the human face after delay. Paper presented at the Off the Witness Stand: Using Psychology in the Practice of Justice conference, New York, NY.

Yells, D.P., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (2006, November). Retrieval-induced forgetting and levels of processing during the initial study phase. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Houston, TX.

Laub, C. E., Bornstein, B. H., Delgadillo, D., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (2006, March). The effect of instructions on a cross-race recognition task. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology – Law Society, St. Petersburg, FL.

Yells, D.P., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (2005, November). Conditions influencing retrieval-induced forgetting in episodic memory. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Toronto, Ontario.

Penrod, S.D., Bornstein, B., Deffenbacher, K.A., McGorty, K., & Adya, M. (2005, June-July). Meta-analyses of the effects of estimator and system variables in 469 eyewitness and facial recognition studies. Paper presented at the XVth European Conference on Law and Psychology, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Deffenbacher, K.A., Bornstein, B.H. & Penrod, S.D. (2005, March). An exercise in synthesis and integration: Viewing the effects of mugshot exposure through the met a-analytic prism. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology – Law Society, La Jolla, CA.

Yells, D., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (2004, November). Retrieval-induced forgetting as a function of intermediate retrieval task . Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Minneapolis, MN.

Yells, D., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (2003, November). Retrieval-induced forgetting from episodic memory: Free recall versus recognition. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Vancouver, BC.

Yells, D., & Deffenbacher, K.A. (2002, November). Episodic associations and retrieval-induced forgetting. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Kansas City, MO.

Deffenbacher, K.A. (1999, July). Negative emotionality and everyday memory: Disentangling the effe cts of defensive and orientation response sets. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Boulder, CO.

Deffenbacher, K.A., Johanson, J., Vetter, T., & O’Toole, A.J. (1998, November). The face typicality- recognizability relationship: Encoding or retrieval locus? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Dallas, TX.

Deffenbacher, K.A., Vetter, T., Johanson, J., & O’Toole, A.J. (1997, November). Relation of facial caricature of aging, attractiveness, and distinctiveness effects. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia, PA.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Huff, D. P., Hendrickson, C., O'Toole, A. J., & Abdi, H. (1995, November). Manipulating face gender: Effects on categorization and recognition judgments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los Angeles, CA.

O'Toole, A. J., Peterson, J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1995, November). An "other-race effect" for classifying faces by gender. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los Angeles, CA.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1994, August). Updating the scientific validity of three key estimator variables in eyewitness testimony. Paper presented at the 3rd International Practical Aspects of Memory Conference, College Park, Maryland.

O'Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., McKee, K., Huff, D. P., Valentin, D., & Abdi, H. (1994, November). Face gender differences in the use of stimulus structure . Paper presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis, Missouri.

O'Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Abdi, H., & Valentin, D. (1993, September). A perceptual learning/statistical structure theory of the information in faces: Applications to the effects of race and typicality on recognition memory. Paper presented at the International Conference on Face Processing, Cardiff, Wales.

Abdi, H., Valentin, D., O'Toole, A. J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1993, September). The contribution of neural models to the wholistic versus features problem. Paper presented at the International Conference on Face Processing, Cardiff, Wales.

O’Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Abdi, H., & Valentin, D. (1992, November). Categorical versus identity information in faces. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis, Missouri.

O'Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D. & Abdi, H. (1992, November). The structure of the other- race effect. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis, Missouri.

O'Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Valentin, D. (1992, October). A neural network/statistical model for the extraction of visually-based categorical and recognition-specific information in human faces. Paper presented at 2nd Annual Texas Symposium on Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, Dallas, Texas.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1992, August). A new look at the relation of everyday memory and arousal. Paper presentation at the American Psychological Association meetings, Washington, D.C.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1992, June). Arousal, activation, and catastrophe theory. Paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Affect and Cognition, Highland Beach, Florida.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Clark, F. J., Davis, M. E., & Larwood, K. J. (1991, November). Is measured channel capacity limited by the absolute identification paradigm? Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, San Francisco, California.

Abdi, H., O'Toole, A. J., Valentin, D., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1991, August). Generalization of the linear utoassociative network and its implications for visual facial prototype extraction. Paper presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for Mathematical Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

O'Toole, A.J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K.A., & Bartlett, J.C. (1991, August). Classifying faces by race and sex using an autoassociative memory trained for recognition. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Chicago, Illinois.

O'Toole, A., Deffenbacher, K.A., Abdi, H., & Bartlett, J.C. (l990 November). Behavioral and simulation explorations of the other-race effect. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Deffenbacher, K.A. (1989, May). Evaluating extraordinary memories: An historical perspective. Paper presented at a symposium held during the meetings of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago Illinois.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Clark, F. J., Larwood, K., & Casteel, M. (1988, November). A remarkable long-term memory for kinesthesia and tactile location. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago Illinois.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1987, August). Eyewitness research: The next ten years. Paper presented at the second International Conference on Practical Aspects of Memory, Swansea, Wales. (Symposium c o-chair).

Deffenbacher, K. A., Bothwell, R. K., & Brigham, J. C. (1986, August). Predicting eyewitness accuracy from confidence: The optimality hypothesis. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association meeting, Washington, D.C.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1985, June). Is the facial engram every truly lost? Paper presented at the NATO Advanced Workshop on "Aspects of Face Processing" held at the University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1985, May). Forensic and scientific issues in voice recognition: A commentary. Paper presented at a symposium held during the meetings of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1984, June). Clearing away the undergrowth of misconception concerning memory for faces and their settings: Implications for the evidentiary process. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Justice and Law, Nags Head, North Carolina.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1982, July). Eyewitness recall the Yerkes-Dodson law, and optimal-level theory. Paper read at the British Psychological Society's International Conference on Psychology and Law, Swansea, Wales.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1981, April). The influence of arousal on reliability of testimon y. Paper read at the British Social Sciences Research Council's Law and Psychology Conference, Trinity College, Oxford.

Montgomery, R., Brown, E.L., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1980, November). Memory for faces: Effects of repetition on item and context memory. Paper read at Psychonomic Society meeting, St. Louis, Missouri.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1980, June). Eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Can we infer anything about their relationship? Paper read at the International Conference on Eyewitness Testimony, Edmonton, Alberta.

Carr, T. H., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Leu, J. R. (1979, November). Is there less interference in memory for faces? Paper read at Psychonomic Society meeting, Phoenix, Arizona.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Leu, J. R., & Brown, E. L. (1979, November). Roles of encoding strategy and recognition testing procedure in facial memory. Paper read at Psychonomic Society meeting, Phoenix, Arizona.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Brown, E. L., & Sturgill, W. (1978, September). Some Predictors of eyewitness memory accuracy. Paper read at International Conference on Practical Aspects of Memory, Cardiff, Wales.

Brown, E. L., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1977, November). Microcomputers big and little: Selecting a lo w-cost laboratory computer network. Paper read at 7th National Conference on the Use of On-Line Computers in Psychology, Washington, DC.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Brown, E. L., & Sturgill, W. (1975, November). Memory for faces and the circumstances of their encounter. Paper read at Psychonomic Society meeting, Denver, Colorado.

Brown, E., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1974, August-September). Forgotten mnemonists. Paper read at the American Psychological Association meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1974, August-September). Effect of certain hierarchical structu re variables on acquisition and forgetting of information in long-term memory. Paper read at American Psychological Association meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Bethel, B., Rollings, H., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1970, May). Effects of an enforced encoding order on attention in concept identification tasks. Paper read at the Midwestern Psychological Association meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1968, March). Effective memory capacity and concept learning efficienc y. Paper read at the Western Psychological Association meeting, San Diego, California. (Chairman of paper session).

Wells, H., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1967, August). Comparative study of conjunctive and disjunctive concept learning. Proceedings of the 75th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 2, 47-48.

 

 Publications -- Articles

Deffenbacher, K. A. (2008). Estimating the impact of estimator variables on eyewitness identification: A fruitful marriage of practical problem solving and psychological theorizing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 815-826. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Bornstein, B. H., McGorty, E. K., & Penrod, S. D. (2008). Forgetting the once-seen face: Estimating the strength of an eyewitness’s memory representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 139-150. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Bornstein, B. H., & Penrod, S. D. (2006). Mugshot exposure effects: Retroactive interference, mugshot commitment, source confusion, and unconscious transference. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 287-307. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Bornstein, B. H., Penrod. S. D, & McGorty, E. K. (2004). A meta-analytic review of the effects of high stress on eyewitness memory. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 687-706. R

Deffenbacher, K.A., Johanson, J., Vetter, T., & O’Toole, A.J. (2000). The face typicality-recognizability relationship: Encoding or retrieval locus? Memory & Cognition, 28, 1173-1182. R

Deffenbacher, K.A., Vetter, T., Johanson, J., & O’Toole, A.J. (1998). Facial aging, attractiveness, and distinctiveness. Perception, 27, 1233-1243. R

Deffenbacher, K.A., O’Toole, A.J., Hendrickson, C., Huff, D.P., & Abdi, H. (1998). Manipulating face gender: Effects on categorization and recognition judgments. Journal of Biological Systems, 6, 219-239. R

O’Toole, A.J., Deffenbacher, K.A., Valentin, D., McKee, K., Huff, D.P., & Abdi, H. (1998). The perception of face gender: The role of stimulus structure in recognition and classification. Memory & Cognition, 26, 146-160. R

Clark, F. J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1996). Models of behaviors when detecting displacements of joints. Experimental Brain Research, 112 , 485-495. R

O’Toole, A. J., Peterson, J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1996). An "other-race effect" for categorizing faces by sex. Perception, 25, 669-676. R

Clark, F. J., Larwood, K. J., Davis, M. E., Deffenbacher, K. A. (1995). A metric for assessing acuity in positioning joints and limbs. Experimental Brain Research, 107, 73-79. R

Hoffman, R. R., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1994). As goals change, so do the misconstruals: Reply to Vicent (1994). Ecological Psychology. R

Deffenbacher, K.A., (1994). Effects of arousal on everyday memory. Human Performance, 7, 141-161. R

O’Toole, A.J., Deffenbacher, K.A., Valentin, D., & Abdi, H. (1994). Structural aspects of the other-race effect. Memory & Cognition, 22 , 208-224. R

Hoffman, R.R., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1993). An ecological analysis of the relations of basic and applied science. Ecological Psychology, 5, 315-352. R

O’Toole, A.J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K.A., & Valentin, D. (1993). A low-dimensional representation of faces in the higher dimensions of the space. Journal of the Optical Society of Ame rica A, 10, 1-7. R

Hoffman, R. R., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1992). A brief history of applied cognitive psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6 , 1-48. R

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1991). A maturing of research on the behavior of eyewitnesses. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5 , 377-402. R

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Bartlett, J.C. (1991). Classifying faces by race and sex using an autoassociative memory trained for recognition. In K. J. Hammond & D. Gentner (Eds)., Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (5 pp). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. R

O’Toole, A.J., Deffenbacher, K.A., Abdi, H., & Bartlett, J.C. (1991). Simulating the "other-race effect" as a problem in perceptual learning. Connection Science: Journal of Neural Computing, Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Research, 3, 163-168. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Cross, J. F., Handkins, R. E., Chance, J. E., Goldstein, A. G., Hammersley, R., & Read, J. D. (1989). Relevance of voice identification research to criteria for evaluating reliability of an identification. Journal of Psychology, 123, 109-119. R

Bothwell, R. K., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Brigham, J. C. (1987). Correlation of eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Optimality hypothesis revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 691-695. R

Chaffin, R., Crawford, M., Herrmann, D. J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1985). Gender differences in the perception of memory abilities in others. Human Learning, 4, 233-241. R

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1985). Eyewitness recall, the Yerkes-Dodson law, and optimal-level theory. Medicine and Law, 4, 361-372. R

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1984). Experimental psychology actually can assist triers of fact. American Psychologist, 39 , 1066-1068.

Deffenbacher, K. A., & Loftus, E. F. (1982). Do jurors share a common understanding concerning eyewitness behavior? Law and Human Behavior, 6, 15-30. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Carr, T. H., & Leu, J. R. (1981). Memory for words, pictures, and faces: Retroactive interference, forgetting, and reminiscence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 7, 299-305. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Leu, J. R. & Brown, E. L. (1981). Memory for faces: Testing method, encoding strategy, and confidence. American Journal of Psychology, 94, 12-26. R

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1980) Eyewitness accuracy and confidence: Can we infer anything about their relationship? Law and Human Behavior, 4, 243-260. R

Brown, E. L., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1978). Microcomputers big and little: Selecting a lo w-cost laboratory computer network. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 10, 241-245. R

Brown, E. L., & Deffenbacher, K. A., & Sturgill, W. (1977). Memory for faces and the circumstances of encounter. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 311-318. R

Brown, E. L., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1975). Forgotten mnemonists. The Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 11 , 342-349. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Platt, G., & Williams, M. A. (1974). Differential recall as a function of socially induced arousal and retention interval. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 809-811. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., Miscik, J., & Jarombek, J. (1974). Acquisition and forgetting of information in long-term memory as a function of certain hierarchical structure variable s. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4, 590-592.

Miscik, J. G., & Deffenbacher K. A. (1974). Short-term retention of visual sequences as a function of stimulus duration and encoding technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 188-190. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., & Brown, E. L. (1973). Memory and cognition: An information processing model of man. Theory and Decision, 4, 141-178. R

Spence, J., Hamm, N. H., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1973). Developmental changes in probability learning as related to cue validity and sign. Developmental Psychology, 9, 282. R

Deffenbacher, K. A., & Hamm, N. H. (1972). An application of Brunswik's lens model to developmental changes in probability learning. Developmental Psychology, 6, 508-519. R

Patterson, J., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1972). Haptic perception of the Mueller-type illusion by the blind. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35 , 819-824 . R

Miscik, J. G., Smith, J. S., Hamm, N. H., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Brown, E. L. (1972). Short-term retention of auditory sequences as a function of stimulus duration, interstimulus interval, and encoding technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96, 147-151. R

Anderson, R. H., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1971). Effect of sound stimulation on visual afterimages. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35 , 819-824. R

Rollings, H., Bethel, B., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1971). Relevant cue placement effects in concept identification tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 87, 9-12. R

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1970). An extension of four single-cue process models to conjunctive concept learning. Psychological Reports, 26 , 95-102. R

Dervin, D., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1970). Effects of proportion of positive instances and degree of restriction on the induction of a principle. Psychonomic Science, 21, 79-80. R

Wells, H. H., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1967). Conjunctive and disjunctive concept learning in humans and squirrel monkeys. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 21, 301-308. R

Wells, H. H, & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1966). Concept learning with one relevant dimension in the squirrel monkey. Psychonomic Science, 6, 237-328 . R

 

 Book and Book Chapters

Pezdek, K., Deffenbacher, K. A., Lam, S. & Hoffman, R. R. (2006). Cognitive psychology: Applications and careers. In S. Donaldson, D. Berger, & K. Pezdek (Eds.), Applied psychology: New frontiers and rewarding careers (pp. 221-241). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1996). Updating the scientific validity of three key estimator variables in eyewitness testimony. In D. Herrmann, C. McEvoy, C. Hertzog, P. Hertel, & M. K. Johnson (Eds.), Basic and applied memory research: Theory in context (pp. 421-438). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

O'Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Valentin, D. (1995). A perceptual learning theory of the information in faces. In T. Valentine (Ed.), Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition (pp. 159-182). London, England: Routledge Ltd.

Williams, K. D., Loftus, E. F., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1992). Eyewitness evidence and testimony. In D. K. Kagehiro & W. S. Laufer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and law (pp. 141-166). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1989). Forensic facial memory: Time is of the essence. In A. W. Young & H. D. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of research on face Processing (pp. 563-570). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers (North-Holland).

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1988). Eyewitness research: The next ten years. In M. M. Gruneberg, R. N. Sykes, & P. E. Morris (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues (Vol. 1, pp. 20-26). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Brown, E. L., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1988). Superior memory performance and mnemonic encoding. In L. K. Obler & D. A. Fein (Eds.), The exceptional brain: Neuropsychology of talent and special abilities (pp. 191-211). New York: The Guilford Press.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1986). On the memorability of the human face. In H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, & A. W. Young (Eds.), Aspects of face processing (pp. 61-70). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1983). The influence of arousal on reliability of testimony. In B. R. Clifford, & S. Lloyd-Bostock (Eds.), Evaluating witness evidence: Recent psychological research and new perspectives (pp. 235-251). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Deffenbacher, K. A., & Horney, J. (1981). Psycholegal aspects of face identification. In G. M. Davies, H. D. Ellis, & J. W. Shepherd (Eds.), Perceiving and remembering faces (pp. 201-226). London and New York: Academic Press.

Brown, E. L., & Deffenbacher, K. A. (1979). Perception and the senses. New York: Oxford University Press.

Deffenbacher, K. A., Brown, E. L., & Sturgill, W. (1978). Some predictors of eyewitness memory accuracy. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (pp. 219-226). London: Academic Press.

 

  BookReviews

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1996). Improving heuristic decision making by triers of fact: Anchored narratives [Review of the book: Anchored narratives: The psychology of criminal evidence ]. Acta Psychologica, 91 , 89-92.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1983). Invited review of Identification evidence: A psychological evaluation by John Shepherd, Hadyn Ellis, & Graham Davies. American Journal of Psychology, 96, 591-595.

Deffenbacher, K. A. (1980). Invited review of Eyewitness testimony by Elizabeth F. Loftus. American Journal of sychology, 93, 746-748.

 

Technical Reports

effenbacher, K. A., & Hunt, E. Simulate of concept learning by new CLS models. University of Washington, epartment of Psychology Technical Report No. 70-1-05, 1970.