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OLLAS
Index of Information about the Humanitarian Crisis of Unaccompanied Children
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photo: www.plan-eu.org
photo: www.plan-eu.org


Immigrants Today

Butterflies and swallows and flamingos have forever spread their wings to flee the cold, the way whales swim in search of seas, and salmon and trout seek out their rivers. Year after year, they all travel thousands of miles on the open roads of air and water.
The roads of human flight are not free.
In immense caravans they march, fugitives fleeing their unbearable lives.
They travel from south to north and from rising sun to setting sun.
Their place in the world has been stolen. They’ve been stripped of their work and their land. Many flee wars, but many more ruinous wages and exhausted plots of land.
These pilgrims, shipwrecked by globalization, wander about, unearthing roads, seeking homes, knocking on doors that swing open when money calls but slam shut in their faces. Some manage to sneak in. Others arrive as corpses that the sea delivers to the forbidden shore, or as nameless bodies buried in the world they hoped to reach.

Los emigrantes, ahora

Desde siempre, las mariposas y las golondrinas y los flamencos vuelan huyendo del frío, año tras año, y nadan las ballenas en busca de otra mar y los salmones y las truchas en busca de su río. Ellos viajan miles de leguas, por los libres caminos del aire y del agua.
No son libres, en cambio, los caminos del éxodo humano.
En inmensas caravanas, marchan los fugitivos de la vida imposible.
Viajan desde el sur hacia el norte y desde el sol naciente hacia el poniente.
Les han robado su lugar en el mundo. Han sido despojados de sus trabajos y sus tierras. Muchos huyen de las guerras, pero muchos más huyen de los salarios exterminados y de los suelos arrasados.
Los náufragos de la globalización peregrinan inventando caminos, queriendo casa, golpeando puertas: las puertas que se abren, mágicamente, al paso del dinero, se cierran en sus narices. Algunos consiguen colarse. Otros son cadáveres que la mar entrega a las orillas prohibidas, o cuerpos sin nombre que yacen bajo la tierra en el otro mundo adonde querían llegar.

(Eduardo Galeano, Voices of Time/Bocas del tiempo, 2007)

 

CAUSES

 

MUTUALLY-REINFORCING CAUSES

Woodrow Wilson Center Latin American Program
Why are Thousands of Central American Children Risking their Lives to Reach the United States?: A View from Honduras (webcast)
Instituto para la Seguridad y la Democracia (INSYDE)
Fact Sheet: Niñez migrante no acompañada en la región norte y centroamérica
National Public Radio (NPR)
Honduran Foreign Minister: U.S. Should Address Root Causes of Migration
The Globe and Mail
Numbers and citizenships of apprehended Central American families
National Public Radio (NPR)
Central American Leaders: Immigrant Children Are A Shared Problem
Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco
Las Tres Caras de Herodes: Éxodo de Criaturas, Migraciones Catastróficas y Vida en Sombras
Immigration Policy Center
No Childhood Here: Why Central American Children Are Fleeing Their Homes
Committee on Migration of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States

Stanford University Press Blog
Intervention and Displacement: How U.S. involvement in Central America pushes children and families to migrate

US News
Immigration Is a Family Matter: Families are fleeing inequality and violence, and keeping them apart fixes nothing

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Unaddressed Ravages of Wars

UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment
– see pages 59-64

Peace and Justice Resource Center
Hijos de las Guerras

Huffington Post
Here's How The U.S. Sparked A Refugee Crisis On The Border, In 8 Simple Steps

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Unsustainable Development

University of Texas Press
Contesting Trade in Central America: Market Reform and Resistance
United Nations Human Development Report Office
The Limits on Pro-Poor Agricultural Trade in Guatemala: Land, Labour and Political Power
Council of Foreign Relations
NAFTA’s Economic Impact
CEPAL - Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)
The United States-Central American Free Trade Agreement: Fiscal implications for the Central American countries
Coalición Alto al CAFTA
DR-CAFTA: Efectos y Alternativas (El Tercer Reporte Anual de La Coalición Alto al CAFTA)

Red Centroamericana de Monitoreo del DR-CAFTA
Centroamérica ¿Mercados o naciones? Impactos del DR-CAFTA en la región a cinco años de vigencia. 2011.
International Labor Organization
Proyecto Mejoramiento de las condiciones laborales y de vida de las trabajadoras de la maquila en Centroamérica
Honduras Laboral
Impacto social de la maquila en Honduras
Centro de Derechos de Mujeres
Coalición Hondureña de Acción Ciudadana

Impacto del libre comercio en los derechos laborales de las obreras de la maquila textil en Honduras
Cordaid
Mining Conflicts and Indigenous Peoples in Guatemala

Cordaid

Conflictos mineros y pueblos indígenas en Guatemala
Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales (Icefi)
La minería en Guatemala: realidad y desafíos frente a la democracia y el desarrollo

Instituto de Agricultura, Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (IARNA), Universidad Rafael Landívar (URL)
Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala 2008-2009: las señales ambientales críticas y su relación con el desarrollo
3.8. Minería en Guatemala: un análisis socioecológico

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Trans-border Drug Economy

UN Office on Drugs and Crime
2011 Global Study on Homicide
World Bank
Crimen y Violencia en Centroamérica: Un Desafío para el Desarrollo 2011
Organization of American States
The drug problem in the Americas: The Economics of Drug Trafficking
School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) Review of International Affairs
Living in an Illegal Economy: The Small Lives that Create Big Bucks in the Global Drug Trade
Los Angeles Times
Exploitation awaits migrant children on Mexico's southern edge
Estudios de Seguridad y Defensa
Violencia en Centroamérica: Las maras en El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras
Vox
“How the war on drugs drives the child migrant crisis”

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Violence: Youth and Women

International Migration Review
Everyday Restriction: Central American Women and the State in the Mexico-Guatemala Border City of Tapachula
United Nations Development Program
Citizen Security with a Human Face: Evidence and Proposals for Latin America
International Journal of Sociology of the Family
Immigrant Latina Mothers as Targets of Legal Violence
Guatemala Human Rights Commission
Rethinking the Drug War in Central America and Mexico: Analysis and Recommendations for Legislators

Immigration Policy Center
Mexican and Central American Asylum and Credible Fear Claims Background and Context

Woodrow Wilson Center Latin American Program
Dangerous Passage: Central America in Crisis And the Exodus of Unaccompanied Minors

Immigration Policy Center
No Childhood Here: Why Central American Children Are Fleeing Their Homes
Los Angeles Times
Exploitation awaits migrant children on Mexico's southern edge

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Loss of Governments' Capacity to Guarantee Citizen Security

The New Republic 
Guatemalans Aren't Just Fleeing Gangs

Nueva Sociedad (NUSO)
Estado y violencia criminal en América Latina: Reflexiones a partir del golpe en Honduras

United Nations Development Program
Citizen Security with a Human Face: Evidence and Proposals for Latin America


United Nations Development Program

Seguridad Ciudadana con Rostro Humano: Diagnóstico y Propuesta para América Latina

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Failure of U.S. Congress to Pass Sensible Immigration Reforms

Mother Jones
Why Our Immigration Courts Can't Handle the Child Migrant Crisis
New York Daily News
The border children may not be illegal
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
Surge of Central American Children Roils U.S. Immigration Debate
Samuel Walker, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Changing the Culture of the Customs and Border Protection Agency: Lessons form Recent Developments in Municipal Police Accountability in the U.S.
Cecilia Menjívar, Arizona State University
Transnational Parenting and Immigration Law: Central Americans in the United States
Latino Policy Forum
Unaccompanied Children in the United States

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U.S. INVOLVEMENT

Análisis Político
Cold War Memories: Latin America Versus The United States

Huffington Post
Unaccompanied Minors? Blame a Century of U.S. Central American Foreign Policy

Southern Studies
Key leaders of Honduras military coup trained in U.S.
Pantheon E-Books
Inside Central America: The Essential Facts Past and Present on el Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala and Costa Rica
Latin American Studies Association (LASA) Forum
Crisis in Honduras (Page 6)
Honduras, Obama and the Region’s New Right (Page 8)

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Organization of American States

Preliminary Observations on the IACHR Visit to Honduras
Marcelo Bucheli, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Good dictator, bad dictator: United Fruit Company and Economic Nationalism in Central America in the Twentieth Century
Huffington Post
Here's How The U.S. Sparked A Refugee Crisis On The Border, In 8 Simple Steps

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FORCED MIGRATION CRISIS

Annual Review of Sociology
A Critical Overview of Migration and Development: The Latin American Challenge
Refugee Survey Quarterly
The New Wave: Forced Displacement Caused by Organized Crime in Central America and Mexico
Forced Migration Review
Gang persecution as grounds for asylum in the US
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Children on the Run Unaccompanied Children Leaving Central America And Mexico and the Need for International Protection

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REFUGEE CRISIS

Center for Gender & Refugee Studies (CGRS) and Kids in Need of Defense (KIND)
A Treacherous Journey: Child Migrants Navigating the U.S. Immigration System
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Children on the Run Unaccompanied Children Leaving Central America And Mexico and the Need for International Protection

Forced Migration Review
Refugees from Central American Gangs
Women's Refugee Commission
Forced From Home: The Lost Boys and Girls of Central America


Women's Refugee Commission
Obligados a partir: Los niños perdidos de Centroamérica
Tampa Bay Times
Perspective: The children of the drug wars

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HUMANITARIAN CRISIS

Women’s Refugee Commission
Top 10 Critical Needs Facing Refugees and Those Displaced in Emergencies
Brookings Up Front
The Surge in Unaccompanied Children from Central America: A Humanitarian Crisis at Our Border
Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA)
Mexico’s Other Border: Security, Migration, and the Humanitarian Crisis in the Line with Central America
American Immigration Council
Children in Danger: A Guide to the Humanitarian Challenge at the Border
Pew Research Center
Children 12 and under are fastest growing group of unaccompanied minors at U.S.-Mexico border

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SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS

 

(IN) "HUMANE" ACT

Sen. Cornyn Website
Cornyn, Cuellar Offer HUMANE Act to Solve Border Crisis

American Immigration Council: Immigration Impact
HUMANE Act Fails to Address Humanitarian Challenges

Think Progress
This Bill Is Dubbed The HUMANE Act, But It Actually Hurts The Migrant Kids It Claims To Protect

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TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION REAUTHORIZATION ACT (TVPRA)

U.S. Department of State
William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008

U.S. Policy Program
The William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008: Summary of Important Provisions

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HISTORIC JUNCTURE OF U.S.-LATIN AMERICAN RELATIONS

Woodrow Wilson Center Latin American Program
Migration of Central American Minors: Causes and Solutions Webcast

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COUNTERACTING THE XENOPHOBIC NARRATIVES

Mother Jones
Child Migrants Have Been Coming to America Alone Since Ellis Island
Moyers & Company
America’s Response to Child Refugees on the Border is Downright Shameful
Discourse & Society
Xenophobic Normality: The Discriminatory Impact of Habitualized Discourse Dynamics
Salon
David Brat’s xenophobic America: The deeply disturbing history of American immigration
Kathy Jurado, University of Michigan
Alienated Citizens: “Hispanophobia” and the Mexican Im/Migrant Body

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MEXICAN CHILDREN SILENTLY DEPORTED

Center for Public Policy Priority
A Child Alone and Without Papers

Catholic Relief Services
Child Migration: The Detention and Repatriation of Unaccompanied Central American Children from Mexico

Institute for the Study of International Migration
Binational Dialogue on Mexican Migrants in the U.S. and in Mexico
Appleseed Network
Children at the Border: The Screening, Protection and Repatriation of Unaccompanied Mexican Minors Appleseed Mexico 
National Immigration Forum
Analyzing Border Enforcement Operations: Interior Repatriation Programs
Pew Research Center
Many Mexican child migrants caught multiple times at border

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MEXICAN GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES, "PAISANO" PROGRAM

Gobierno de México
Programa Paisano
Gobierno de México
La ley migratoria de Mexico
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Mexico Institute
Understanding Mexico’s Changing Immigration Laws
CIP Americas Program
Forgotten Refugees: Mexico’s Displacement Crisis

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HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST MINORS AND WOMEN

Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) Americas Program
Trafficking in the Mesoamerican Corridor: A Threat to Regional and Human Security
Center for Gender & Refugee Studies
Central America: Femicides and Gender-Based Violence
Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development
Global Burden of Armed Violence: Chapter 4. “When the Victim is a Woman”
International Organization for Migration
La trata de mujeres: una expresión de la violencia contra las mujeres

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MEDIUM- TO LONG-TERM SOLUTIONS

 

UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

UNICEF
FACT SHEET: A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child

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FLOW OF GUNS

Colectivo de Análisis de la Seguridad con Democracia
Atlas de la seguridad y la defensa de México 2012

Capítulo 5: El desafío del tráfico de armas en México y Centroamérica

Capítulo 6: El tráfico de armas de Estados Unidos hacia México

Organization of American States
The drug problem in the Americas: Studies The Economics of Drug Trafficking
School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) Review of International Affairs
Living in an Illegal Economy: The Small Lives that Create Big Bucks in the Global Drug Trade
UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment

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ENGAGING GOVERNMENT, NEIGHBORS AND NGOs ACROSS BORDERS

Huffington Post
New York City May Begin Housing Unaccompanied Border Children
Boston Globe
Governor Patrick wants Mass. to host children
New York Times
With Surge in Child Migrants, New York Forms Task Force on Aiding Them
Woodrow Wilson Center Latin American Program
Migration of Central American Minors: Causes and Solutions Webcast

Woodrow Wilson Center Latin American Program
Why are Thousands of Central American Children Risking their Lives to Reach the United States?: A View from Honduras (webcast)

Nebraska Organizations
Nebraska groups urge Congress to protect children seeking safety
Office of Latino/Latin American Studies (OLLAS) at the University of Nebraska at Omaha
Statement of Concern about the Humanitarian Crisis of Unaccompanied Children
National Alliance of Latin American and Caribbean Communities (NALAAC)
Immigrant Children– Urgent Crisis with Deep Roots

Protect, Don’t Deport Children– and Address Drivers of the Crisis
Foreign Policy in Focus
The Long Road to Immigration Reform
National Alliance of Latin American and Caribbean Communities (NALACC)
The Power of the Pen
Huffington Post
Progressive Caucus: Don't Take Protections Away From Kids To Address Border Crisis

Instituto para la Seguridad y la Democracia (INSYDE)
Fact Sheet: Niñez migrante no acompañada en la región norte y centroamérica

CBS
In El Salvador, kids seek refuge from the violence
Univisión: Al Punto
¿Qué medidas esta tomando Honduras para prevenir la crisis de niños migrantes?
Red Jesuita con Migrantes Centroamérica & Norteamérica
La migración de los niños y niñas centroamericanos a Estados Unidos: ¿Quiénes son los responsables? ¿Y cuáles son las acciones urgentes?
Alianza para las Migraciones en Centroamerica y Mexico/Central American and Mexican Migration Alliance
Public Statement: Dialogue and exchange visit on unaccompanied migrant children
Inter-American Dialogue
Understanding Central American Migration: The crisis of Central American child migrants in context

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