Oblivion beyond Forgetting: A Buddhist Reflection on Suffering in Ashes of Time

by Heawon Choi


1. Wimal Dissanayake, Wong Kar-wai’s Ashes of Time (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2003), 37-38, 124-125; Stephen Teo, Wong Kar-wai (London: British Film Institute, 2005), 80-81.

2. Peter Brunette, Wong Kar-wai (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2005), 44.

3. Teo (2005), 81.

4. All scripts in the text are taken from the film’s English subtitles.

5. For the original text of the story in English version, see Wing-tsit Chan, trans., The Platform Scripture (New York: St. John’s University Press, 1963), 10.

6. Yoshito S. Hakeda, trans., The Awakening of Faith: Attributed to Aśvaghosha (New York & London: Columbia University press, 1967), 41.

7. Jean-Marc Lalanne, “Images from the Inside” in Jean-Marc Lalanne, David Martinez, et al., Wong Kar-wai (Paris: Dis Voir, 1997), 22-24.

8. Brunette (2005), 43.

9. John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and A Treatise on The Conduct of the Understanding (Philadelphia: Hayes & Zell, 1860), 211.

10. David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, David Fate Norton & Mary J. Norton, eds., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 171.

11. For more detail about alaya and manas consciousness, see Thomas E. Wood’s Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991), 49-56.

12. Dissanayake (2003), 119-123.

13. Ibid., 152.

14. Brunette (2005), 41.

15. Chan (1963), 51.

16. Ibid., 61.

17. Friedrich W. Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, trans. and ed. Douglas Smith (Oxford: Oxford World’s Classics, 1996), 39.

18. Chan (1963), 73.

19. Burton Watson, The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1968), 197.

20. Jinhua Jia, The Hongzhou School of Chan Buddhism in Eighth- through Tenth-Century China (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006), 123.

21. See Albert Welter, The Linji lu and the Creation of Chan Orthodoxy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 87-90.

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