The Path of Jihard in the Yacoubian Building

by

Michel Gardaz

Notes

1. "I would like to thank Dr. Anton Karl Kozlovic from Flinders University (Adelaide, Australia) for his pertinent suggestions regarding the textual improvement of this article."

2. Peltre, Christine. 1995. L'Atelier du voyage: Les peintres en Orient au XIXe siècle. Gallimard, Paris; Thornton, Lynne. 1994. La Femme dans la peinture orientaliste. ACR Edition, Paris.

3. Gardaz, Michel. 2005. La Bayadère, le gymnosophiste et le tigre: L'orientalisme français et l'exotisme indien au dix-neuvième siècle. Religiologiques 31: 1 73-88.

4.Meyerson, Daniel. 2004. Linguist and the Emperor: Napoleon and Champollion's Quest to Decipher the Rosetta Stone . Ballantine, New York.

5. Gardaz, Michel. 2000. The Age of Discoveries and Patriotism: James Darmesteter's Assessment of French Orientalism. Religion 30: 353-65.

6.Haskell, Francis. 1986 La Norme et le caprice. Flammarion, Paris; Haskell, Francis.1989 De l'art et du goût: jadis et naguère. Gallimard, Paris.

7. Barghouti, Mustafa. 2006. A Committed Intellectual. Al-Ahram Weekly (16-22 November): 15; Courville, Mathieu. 2007. Edward Said's Rhetoric of the Secular: A Critical Theory of Religion. PhD diss., University of Ottawa, Canada; Gardaz, Michel. 2004. Twenty-fifth anniversary of E.W. Said's Orientalism. Religion 34: 93-7; King, Richard. 1999 Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory , India and the Mystic East. Routledge, London; Low, Lisa. 1991. Critical Terrain: French & British Orientalism. Cornell University Press, Ithaca ; Said, Edward W. 1978. Orientalism. Vantage, New York.

8. Macfie, Alexander. L. 2002. Orientalism. Longman, London, 59; see also Kenedy, Dane. 2003. Imperial History and Post-Colonial Theory. In The Decolonization Reader, edited by James D. Le Sueur, 10-22. Routledge, London.

9. Chidester, David. 2000. Colonialism. In Guide to the Study of Religion, edited by Willi Braun and Russell T. McCutcheon, Cassell, New York, 432.

10. Ferrell, William K. 2000. Literature and Film as Modern Mythology. Praeger, Esport, CT; Lyden, John. 2003. Film as Religion: Myths, Morals, and Rituals. NYU Press; Plate, S. Brent. 2003. Representing Religion in World Cinema: Filmmaking, Mythmaking, Culture Making. Palgrave Macmillan, New York .

11. Flesher, Paul V. M., and Robert. Torry. 2007. Film & Religion: An Introduction. Abingdon Press, Nashville; Plate, S. Brent. 2005. Film and Religion. Encyclopedia of Religion, edited by Lindsay Jones, Vol. 5: 3097-103. Macmillan, Detroit .

12. Check out http://www.unomaha.edu/jrf/.

13. Alaa Al Aswany was born in 1957.

14. This is considered an Islamic sin, but not according to Azzam's opportunist perspective.

15. Even the parents of some of the residents were envious of his intellectual abilities.

16. They were always the same; and the policeman of his neighbourhood gave him the correct answers beforehand.

17. There are only trivial differences between the novel's narrative and the one of the film.

18. Aswany, Alaa Al. 2004. The Yacoubian Building . Translated from the Arabic by Humphrey Davies. American University of Cairo, Cairo, 94-5.

19. Mustafa, H. 2006. Novel Drama. Al-Ahram Weekly (29 June – 5 July), 15.

20. Sexual ignorance is bliss according to prudish Islamic fundamentalists.

21. This is a prohibited behaviour, Qur'an 2. 219- Qur'an •  Le Coran . Traduction Jacques Berque. Sindbad, Paris. exégétique.

22. Masson, Jacques. 2006. Les Coptes aujourd'hui. Géopolitique 92 (December-February): 31-39.

23. Gardaz, Michel. 2005. La violence, la modernité et les intellectuels musulmans. Religiologiques 31, 49

24. In the novel, he was murdered by his former lover.

25. Rizq, Hamdi. 2006. Le voile est tombé sur les séries égyptiennes. Courrier International 832 (12-18 October), 70.

26. Marcotte, Roxanne D. 2005. Identity, Power, and the Islamist Discourse on Women: An Exploration of Islamism and Gender Issues in Egypt . In Islam in World Politics , edited by Nelly Lahoud and Anthony A. H. Johns, 67-92. Routledge, London and Marcotte, Roxanne D.2006. What Might an Islamist Gender Discourse Look Like? Australian Religion Studies Review 19(2): 141-67.

27. Forty percent of the population earns less than $2 a day, and 30 percent are still illiterate - see Buccianti, Alexandre. 2006 Démographie: Une bombe à retardement? Géopolitique 92 (December-February), 14.

28. Nolan, Marcus, and Howard, Pack. 2004. Islam, Globalization, and Economic Performance in the Middle East. International Economics Policy Briefs . June: 1-8, 1.

29. Kepel, Gilles. 2000. Jihad: Expansion et déclin de l'islamisme . Gallimard, Paris. 17.

30. Sfeir, Antoine. 2002 Dictionnaire mondial de l'islamisme . Plon, Paris, i-ii.

31. Qur'an •  Le Coran . Traduction Jacques Berque. Sindbad, Paris. exégétique, 22.39 and 25.52.

32. Bonner, M. D. 2006. Jihad in Islamic History. Princeton University Press, Princeton ; Crow, Karim D. 2005. Jihad: Peaceful-Striving & Combative Struggle. Editions CCD, Kuala Lumpur; Gerges, Fawaz A. 2006. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Lamchichi, Abderrahim. 2006. Jihad: un concept polysémique. Harmattan, Paris; Marranci, Gabrielle. 2006. Jihad Beyond Islam. Berg, New York; Peters, Rudolph. 1996. Classical and Modern Islam. Markus Wiener, Princeton.

33. AKA: The Society of the Muslim Brothers, The Muslim Brothers, the Brotherhood, or MB.

34. Faksh, Mahmud A. 1997. The Future of Islam in the Middle-East: Fundamentalism in Egypt, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. Praeger, London, 43.

35. Gardaz, Michel. 2007. Au pays des pharaons, les Frères musulmans seront-ils rois? Argument: Politique, Société et Histoire 9(2), 207-14.

36. Howeidy, Amira. 2006. Worried About the Future” Al-Ahram Weekly, (21-27 September), 4.

37. Howeidy, Amira. 2006. Worried About the Future” Al-Ahram Weekly, (21-27 September), 4.

38. Howeidy, Amira. 2006. Worried About the Future” Al-Ahram Weekly, (21-27 September), 4.

39. Howeidy, Amira. 2006 Worried About the Future” Al-Ahram Weekly, (21-27 September),: 4.

40. See the official English website at http://www.ikhwanweb.com.

41. This is described in the Qur'an, Hadiths, and Sunnah.

42. He is the Egyptian Nobel prize winner.

43. Sfeir, Antoine. 2002. Dictionnaire mondial de l'islamisme . Plon, Paris, 20.

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