Revisiting Violence in TheGodfather: The Ambiguous Space of the Victimage Model

By Paul Graham

Works Cited

Austin, Ronald. “Sacrificing Images: Violence and the Movies.” Image 20 (1998): 23-28.

Girard, René. The Scapegoat. Trans. Yvonne Freccero. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986.

__________. Violence and the Sacred. Trans. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP,


Godfather, The. Dir. Francis Ford Coppola. Perf. Marlon Brando and Al Pacino. 1972.

Videocassette. Paramount Pictures, 1999.

Kolker, Robert Phillip. A Cinema of Loneliness. New York: Oxford UP, 1980.

May, John R. “TheGodfather Films: Birth of a Don, Death of a Family.” Image and Likeness:

Religious Visions in American Film Classics . Ed. John R. May. New York: Paulist,

1992. 65-75.

McKinney, Devin. “Violence: The Strong and the Weak.” Screening Violence. Ed. Stephen

Prince. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2000. 99-109.

Prince, Stephen. Savage Cinema: Sam Peckinpah and the Rise of Ultraviolent Movies. Austin:

U of Texas P, 1998.

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