The Devil We Already Know: Medieval Representations of a Powerless Satan in Modern American Cinema

by Kelly J. Wyman
University of Missouri
- Kansas City

FOOTNOTES

1. Bryan P. Stone, The Sanctification of Fear: Images of the Religious in Horror Films, The Journal of Religion and Film, Vol. 5, No. 2, October 2001, n.p.

2. Nikolas Schreck, The Satanic Screen: An Illustrated Guide to the Devil in Cinema (New York: Creation, 2001).

3. Charles P. Mitchell, The Devil on Screen: Feature Films Worldwide, 1913 Through 2000 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2002).

4. Jeffrey H. Mahan, Celluloid Savior: Jesus in the Movies, The Journal of Religion and  Film, Vol. 6, No. 1, April 2002, n.p.; Anton Karl Kozlovic, Superman as Christ-Figure: The American Pop Culture Movie Messiah, The Journal of Religion and Film, Vol. 6, No. 1, April 2002, n.p.; Linda A. Mercadante, The God Behind the Screen: Pleasentville & The Truman Show, The Journal of Religion and Film, Vol. 5, No. 2, October 2001, n.p.

5. Albert J. Bergesen and Andrew M. Greeley, God in the Movies: A Sociological Investigation (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publications, 2000), Bryan P. Stone, Faith and Film: Theological Themes at the Cinema (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2000), William D. Ramanowski, Eyes Wide Open: Looking for God in Popular Culture (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2001), Richard C. Stern, Clayton N. Jefford, and Guerric Debona, Savior on the Silver Screen (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1999), Joel W. Martin and Conrad E. Ostwalt, Jr. (Eds.), Screening the Sacred: Religion, Myth, and Ideology in Popular American Film (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), and W. Barnes Tatum, Jesus at the Movies: A Guide to the First Hundred Years (Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge Press, 1998).

6. The representations looked at are from the sixth to the fifteenth centuries.

7. The use of the term "Christianity" in this article is identified with Catholicism unless otherwise specified.

8. Jeffrey Burton Russell, Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (Ithaca: NY, Cornell University Press, 1984), 129.

9. Anthony Finley, Demons: The Devil, Possession, and Exorcism (London: Vega, 2002).

10. Finley, 29.

11. Luther Link, The Devil: The Archfiend in Art From the Sixth to the Sixteenth Century (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995). 12. Link, 35.

13. Link, 37-38, italics in original.

14. Link, 44.

15. Jeffrey Burton Russell, Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1984), 23.

16. Russell, Lucifer, 130.

17. Oh, God! You Devil. 1984. Directed by Paul Bogart. 97 min. Earner Brothers Pictures. Digital Video Disc, The Witches of Eastwick. 1987. Directed by George Miller. 118 min. Warner Brothers Pictures. Digital Video Disc, Angel Heart. 1987. Directed by Alan Parker. 112 min, Carolco Entertainment. Digital Video Disc, Devil's Advocate. 1997. Directed by Taylor Hackford. 144 min. Warner Brothers Pictures. Digital Video Disc, End of Days. 1999. Directed by Peter Hyams. 123 min. Universal Pictures. Digital Video Disc, Bedazzled. 2000. Directed by Harold Ramis. 93 min. 20th Century Fox. Digital Video Disc.

18. Link, 130.

19. Russell, Lucifer, 68.

20. Russell, Lucifer, 132.

21. Jeffrey Burton Russell, Witchcraft in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1972), 145.

22. Russell, Witchcraft, 115

23. Russell, Witchcraft, 218, 183.

24. Robert Emmett Finnegan, Christ and Satan: A Critical Edition (Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Lauier University Press, 1977), 27.

25. Russell, Lucifer, 144.

26. Wulfstan wrote during the eleventh century. For more information see Merrel Dare Clubb's Christ and Satan: An Old English Poem (Hamden, CN: Archon Books, 1925), 62.

27. Russell, Lucifer, 103.

28. Rosemary's Baby. 1968. Directed by Roman Polanski. 136 min. Paramount Pictures. Digital Video Disc, The Omen. 1976. Directed by Richard Donner. 111 min. 20th Century Fox. Digital Video Disc.

29. Legend. 1985. Directed by Ridley Scott. 89 min. 20th Century Fox. Digital Video Disc.

30. Russell, Lucifer, 131-133.

31. Russell, Lucifer, 211.

32. Russell, Lucifer, 67.

33. Russell, Lucifer, 131.

34. Russell, Lucifer, 69.

35. Little Nicky. 2000. Directed by Steven Brill. 84 min. New Line Cinema. Digital Video Disc.

36. Elaine Pagels, The Origin of Satan (New York: Vintage Books, 1996), xvii.

37. Graves, 92.

38. Corte, 100.

39. Michael W. Cueno, American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 259.

40. Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977), 230.

41. Russell, Witchcraft, 101-102.

42. Russell, Lucifer, 225.

43. Russell, Lucifer, 242.

44. Link, 183.

45. Link, 76.

46. Hellbound: Hellraiser II. 1988. Directed by Tony Randel. 99 min. New World Pictures. Digital Video Disc.

46. Hellbound: Hellraiser II. 1988. Directed by Tony Randel. 99 min. New World Pictures. Digital Video Disc.

48. Russell, Lucifer, 63.

49. Russell, Lucifer, 76.

50. Russell, Lucifer, 161.

51. Russell, Lucifer, 80.

52. Liselotte Diecknamm, Goethe's Faust: A Critical Reading (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972), 1.

53. Russell, Lucifer, 234.

54. Russell, Lucifer, 235.

55. Link, 193.

56. Link, 41.

57. Peter L. Berger, The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion (New York: Anchor Books, 1990), 124.

58. Peter L. Berger, Epistemological Modesty: An Interview with Peter Berger, The Christian Century, 29 October 1997, 272-278.

59. This is the argument that people have become desensitized to violence, sex and profanity in television, films, and other forms of media. Since the advent of various forms of media, there has been an increase in the portrayals of such behavior.

60. Philippe Ariès, The Hour of Our Death, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981), 576.

61. Finley, 159.

62. Finley, 159.


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