This page reviews, in chart form, the information you should have accumulated on the primary hormones secreted by each endocrine gland and the effects of each hormones. (F.Y.I.- Following each chart is a link to a web page that reviews the effects of abnormal secretion of these hormones.) The following gland are included:

HYPOPHYSIS

PANCREAS

PINEAL

THYROID

ADRENAL

OVARY

PARATHYROID

THYMUS

TESTIS

[HOME] [ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY]

 

HYPOPHYSIS - PITUITARY

HYPOPHYSIS REGIONS

HORMONE

EFFECT

PARS DISTALIS

growth hormone - GH

stimulates protein synthesis and growth

ACTH

stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce the glucocorticoids

TSH

stimulates the thyroid to produce and secrete thyroxin

FSH

- in females, stimulates the development of follicles in the ovary and their production of estrogen

- in males, stimulates spermatogenesis

LH (ICSH)

in females, stimulates ovulation, the formation of the corpus luteum and the production of progesterone by the corpus luteum

in males, stimulates the production of testosterone by the interstitial cells

prolactin

in females, stimulates the production of milk by mammary gland

PARS INTERMEDIA

MSH

no known effect

PARS NERVOSA

ADH

stimulates the kidneys to retain water

oxytocin

in females, stimulates contraction during parturition and milk ejection by the mammary glands

[TOP OF PAGE] [HYPOPHYSIS MICROGRAPH]
[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [ HOME]

 


THYROID GLAND

HORMONE

EFFECT

thyroxin

controls the BMR (basal metabolic rate - cell respiration)

stimulates growth and development

calcitonin

stimulates deposition of calcium into bone (by the osteoclasts)

[TOP OF PAGE] [THYROID MICROGRAPH]
[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]

 


PARATHYROID GLAND

HORMONE

EFFECTS

PTH

promotes an increase in calcium ion concentration in the blood by activating the osteoclasts in bones and stimulating the kidneys to reabsorb calcium

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[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]

 


PANCREAS

HORMONE

EFFECTS

insulin

stimulates cellular uptake of glucose and the formation of glycogen and fat

glucagon

stimulates cellular hydrolysis (breakdown) of glycogen

[TOP OF PAGE] [PANCREAS MICROGRAPH]
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ADRENAL GLAND

HORMONE

EFFECT

aldosterone

acts on the kidneys and their retention of Na+ (ultimate result is retention of water)

cortisol

acts to make sugar available for cellular respiration during stress

epinephrine
norepinephrine

"fight or flight" hormone causes increases in heart rate, heart output, blood pressure, respiratory rate, metabolic rate

[TOP OF PAGE] [ADRENAL MICROGRAPH]
[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]


THYMUS

HORMONE

EFFECT

thymosin

appears to be essential in the proper development of the immune system

[TOP OF PAGE] [THYMUS MICROGRAPH]
[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]


PINEAL GLAND

HORMONE

EFFECT

melatonin

produced in greatest amounts at night, health food stores sell this hormone as a sleep aid and to minimize jet lag

[TOP OF PAGE] [PINEAL GLAND MICROGRAPH]
[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]

 


OVARY*

HORMONE

EFFECT

estrogens

secreted by the developing follicles - it influences maturation of the sex organs and development of secondary sex characteristics in females and effects growth of the endometrium of the uterus during the menstrual cycle

progesterone

secreted by the corpus luteum - it influences the development of the endometrium

* see the pituitary hormones FSH and LH as they influence the production of the estrogen and progesterone

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[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]

 


TESTIS*

HORMONE

EFFECT

testosterone

secreted by the interstitial cells - in males it influences the development and maintenance of the sex organs and development of secondary sex characteristics

* see the pituitary hormone LH for its effect on the production of testosterone and FSH for its effect on spermatogenesis

[TOP OF PAGE] [TESTIS MICROGRAPH]
[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [ABNORMAL SECRETIONS] [BLOOD HISTOLOGY] [HOME]


This page was last updated in August, 1997.

All micrographs are the property of Sherri Wick. Students of Biology 2740 and 2840 are welcome to use this page in the study and review of lecture and lab materials in the Human Physiology and Anatomy courses.

Please e-mail or hand deliver suggestion for changes to this web site that would make the site more helpful to you in your learning and review.

Author: Sherri Wick, Coordinator and Instructor - Human Physiology and Anatomy Laboratories
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Allwine Hall 211E, 554-2343
swick@cwis.unomaha.edu