In our Physiology and Anatomy course, we are primarily concerned with normal body processes. Occasionally we consider disorders associated with the systems we study. The hypersecretion and hyposecretion of a few of our hormones are considered in this unit. Below, these abnormalities are summarized. Further, "For Your Information" only, links to several Web sites that deal with endocrine disorders are provided. Effects of abnormal secretions or FYI materials are included for the following:

HYPOPHYSIS

PANCREAS

PINEAL

THYROID

ADRENAL

OVARY

PARATHYROID

THYMUS

TESTIS

 

[ENDOCRINE HISTOLOGY PAGE] [HORMONE EFFECTS] [HOME]

HYPOPHYSIS - PITUITARY

hypersecretion of Growth Hormone:

gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults

hyposecretion of Growth Hormone:

pituitary dwarfism - if the condition occurs during childhood, slows long bone growth. Those with this condition are usually under 4 feet in height but are normally proportioned.

hyposecretion of ADH:

diabetes insipidus - polyuria, polydipsia, severe ionic imbalances

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The Pituitary Tumor Network Association offers a full guide to services, resources and professionals in pituitary specialties. "Dedicated to improving the quality of life and well-being for all patients with pituitary adenomas or afflictions": http://www.pituitary.com/


THYROID GLAND

hyperthyroidism:

Graves's disease, considered an autoimmune disease, shows elevated metabolic rate, excessive perspiration, rapid, irregular heartbeat, nervousness and weight loss
exophthalmos: protrusion of the eyeballs caused by edematous tissue behind the eyes

hypothyroidism:

cretinism (infantile hypothyroidism) - shows stunted growth, thickened facial features, abnormal bone development and mental retardation
myxedema - low metabolic rate, lethargy, weight gain, increase in body fluids
goiter - abnormal growth of the thyroid gland

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Visit the Thyroid Foundation of Canada which offers information on Graves disease, goiters, and hypersecretion, hyposecretion and cancer of the thyroid. http://www.io.org/~thyroid/English/Guides.html






PARATHYROID GLAND

hyperparathyroidism:

demineralization of bone resulting in possible bone deformity and fracture, and stones in the urinary tract

hypoparathyroidism:

decreased plasma calcium levels which can lead to severe muscle tetany

 

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Visit an information page on PARATHYROIDISM: http://www.familyinternet.com/peds/top/000385.htm

 


 

PANCREAS

hyperinsulinism:

hypoglycemia - resulting in lack of glucose delivery to the brain causing disorientation, unconsciousness and even death (usually the result of an overdose of insulin)

hypoinsulinism:

Type I Diabetes (insulin - dependent diabetes mellitus)- elevated glucose levels in the blood and urine. Over time diabetics experience vascular and neural problems. Secondarily, poor circulation may lead to gangrene, blindness, kidney damage and impotence.
Type II Diabetes - while occurring later in life, the conditions and problems that accompany Type I diabetes occur here as well

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Visit the AMERICAN DIABETES HOMPAGE whose mission it is "To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people affected by diabetes." http://www.diabetes.org/index.html


Did you TAKE THE TEST - KNOW THE SCORE at the American Diabetes Homepage? http://www.diabetes.org/ada/risktest.html


If you are a diabetic, the Diabetes Net can keep you updated on treatments, services and products: http://www.diabetesnet.com/index.html.

 


 

ADRENAL GLAND

hypersecretion of corticosteroids:

Cushing's syndrome - changes in carbohydrate and protein metabolism resulting in a puffy appearance. In extreme cases, changes such as "buffalo hump" and "moon face" occur.

hypersecretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine:

hypertension, hyperglycemia, nervousness, sweating. Complete exhaustion occurs.

hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids:

Addison's Disease - hypoglycemia, sodium and potassium imbalance, dehydration, hypotension, and rapid weight loss. Death occurs with lack of treatment.

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Further information regarding Addison's Disease is available from the "Wellness Web": http://www.wellweb.com/index/qaddison.htm

Further information regarding Cushing's Syndrome has been prepared by Dr. Hing-Chung Lam. It is available at: http://www2.nsysu.edu.tw/hclam/cushing.htm


THYMUS

Not responsible for any effects of hypo or hyper secretion of thymosin.

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PINEAL

Not responsible for any effects of hypo or hyper secretion of melatonin.

 

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Further information about melatonin is available through a list of web sites offered by Aeiveos Sciences Group, a biotechnology research and education company dedicated to understanding the causes of aging at http://avsunxsvr.aeiveos.com/diet/melatonin/


OVARY

You are not responsible for any effects of hypo or hyper secretion of estrogen or progesterone.

 

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TESTIS

You are not responsible for any effects of hypo or hyper secretion of testosterone.

 

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This page was last updated in August, 1997.

All micrographs are the property of Sherri Wick. Students of Biology 2740 and 2840 are welcome to use this page in the study and review of lecture and lab materials in the Human Physiology and Anatomy courses.

Please e-mail or hand deliver suggestion for changes to this web site that would make the site more helpful to you in your learning and review.

Author: Sherri Wick, Coordinator and Instructor - Human Physiology and Anatomy Laboratories
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Allwine Hall 211E, 554-2343
swick@cwis.unomaha.edu