Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer.

1. Most reabsorption of substances from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the:

A. glomerulus B. collecting tubule C. proximal convoluted tubule D. ureter E. distal convoluted tubule.

2. Under normal circumstances, the kidneys produce about ----- liters of glomerular filtrate per day.

A. 1,000 B. 180 C. 110 D. 7.5 E. 1 to 2.

3. As the renal artery approaches the kidney, it branches to supply the renal glomeruli. Place the following in the correct sequence starting from the renal artery.

1. arcuate artery 2. interlobular artery 3. interlobar artery 4. afferent arteriole

A. (2,1,3,4) B. (2,3, 1,4) C. (1,3,4,2) D. (4,3,1,2) E. (3,1,2,4)

4. ADH is produced in the:

A. Juxtaglomerular cells
B. anterior pituitary gland
C. adrenal cortex
D. hypothalamus
E. posterior pituitary gland.

5. When ADH levels in the blood are high, the collecting ducts are:

A. very impermeable to water
B. very permeable to protein molecules
C. very permeable to water
D. very permeable to sodium and chloride ions
E. none of the preceding.

6. Given the following conditions:

Capsular hydrostatic pressure = 15 mm Hg
Glomerular plasma osmotic pressure = 25 mm
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure = 75 mm Hg


A. 35 mm Hg B. 85 mm Hg C. 65 mm Hg D. 115 mm Hg

7. The renal cortex contains:

A. renal pyramids B. papillae C. calyces D. none of the preceding.

Match the following structures (Items A through D) and descriptions.

A. proximal convoluted tubule
B. descending limb of the nephron loop
C. collecting duct
D. ascending limb of the nephron loop.

8. Active transport of sodium; water follows passively
9. Active transport of sodium; impermeable to water
10. passively permeable to water
11. passively permeable to water under ADH stimulation.

Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer.

12. The appearance of glucose in the urine:

A. occurs normally
B. is a result of overproduction of angiotensin II
C. is a result of hypoglycemia
D. occurs when the transport carriers for glucose become saturated
E. two of the above.

13. The urinary bladder:

A. has bundles of skeletal muscle in its wall
B. is connected to the exterior by the ureter
C. is innervated by the cranial accessory nerve (XI)
D. is located posterior to the pubic symphysis
E. all of the above.

14. In the proximal convoluted tubule, chloride ions are reabsorbed because of:

A. active transport
B. their involvement in calcium retention
C. the electrical attraction of sodium ions
D. the high osmotic gradient
E. all of the preceding.

15. Which of the following promotes sodium retention and potassium loss from the blood across: the wall of the wall of the distal convoluted tubule?

A. renin B. angiotensin II C. aldosterone D. angiotensin I E. ADH.

16. The process of micturition or urination:

A. involves relaxation of the detrusor muscle
B. requires contraction of the external urethral muscle
C. is a reflex involving sacral segments of the spinal cord
D. all of the above.

17. Granular (juxtaglomerular cells) secrete ----- when there is a fall in ----- ion concentration.

A. renin / chloride
B. carbonic anhydrase / sodium
C. ATPase / potassium
D. renin / sodium
E. carbonic anhydrase / carbon dioxide.

MATCHING. What type of epithelium forms the lining of the following structures? (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once or not at all.)

A. stratified squamous epithelium
B. transitional epithelium
C. simple ciliated columnar epithelium
D. simple cuboidal epithelium
E. simple squamous epithelium.

18. Urinary bladder
19. Vagina
20. Uterine (fallopian) tube
21. Renal pelvis
22. Ureter
23. Proximal convoluted tubule
24. Renal calyces


25. The region of the distal convoluted tubule in contact with the granular cells of the afferent arteriole is called the macula dense
26. Within each kidney, the interlobar veins empty their blood into the renal vein
27. In the female urinary system, the urethral orifice is situated posterior to the vaginal orifice
28. Natriuretic hormone is produced by cells in the kidneys.
29. Incontinence refers to the inability to control micturition
30. The term cystitis refers to an infection of the urinary bladder
31. The apical membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule cells is impermeable to bicarbonate ions.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

32. The human ovum and spermatozoon are similar in that:

A. about the same number of each is produced each month
B. they have the same degree of motility
C. they are about the same size
D. they have the same number of chromosomes
E. none of the above.

33. Spermiogenesis involves:

A. the formation of spermatozoa from spermatogonia
B. the movement of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract
C. the formation of primordial or primitive reproductive cells in the yolk sac membrane
D. the transformation of spermatids into spermatozoa
E. the movement of spermatozoa from the epididymis into the ejaculatory duct.

34. During early and middle fetal life, the testes are located in the:

A. inguinal canal B. abdominal cavity C. pelvic cavity D. scrotal

35. Inflammation of the seminiferous tubules could interfere with the ability to:

A. make semen alkaline
B. secrete testosterone
C. produce spermatozoa
D. eliminate urine from the bladder
E. all of the preceding.

36. The mitochondria in mature sperm cells are located in the:

A. head of the sperm
B. body (middle piece) of the sperm
C. acrosome of the sperm
D. tail (flagellum) of the sperm
E. mature sperm do not have mitochondria.

37. The movement of spermatozoa, from the epididymal duct, and seminal fluid into the ejaculatory duct and the urethra is called and is under control.

A. ejaculation / parasympathetic
B. emigration / parasympathetic
C. erection / parasympathetic
D. emission / sympathetic

38. Prostaglandins within the seminal fluid are thought to:

A. cause ovulation
B. decrease sperm motility
C. stimulate muscular contractions within the uterus
D. stimulate the vestibular (Bartholin's) glands to produce mucus

39. Which of the foil owing is not paired in the male?

A. epididymis
B. ejaculatory duct
C. urethra
D. ductus deferens (vas deferens)
E. all the preceding structures are paired in the male.

40. At birth, the ovaries of a newborn girl contain about ----- gamete-producing cells called-----

A. 10 million / oogonia
B. 2 million / primary oocytes
C. 400,000 / primary oocytes
D. 40,000 / Sertoli cells
E. 50 million / primary follicles.

MATCH THE FOLLOWING CELL TYPES WITH THE CORRESPONDING CHROMOSOME COMPLEMENT. That is, is the cell haploid or diploid? (NOTE; If the cell is haploid use an "A", if diploid use a "B".)

41. Spermatozoon.
42. Secondary spermatocyte
43. Spermatogonium
44. Spermatid
45. Primary spermatocyte
46. Secondary oocyte
47. Second polar body
48. First polar body
49. Primary oocyte

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

50. The onset of menstruation at puberty is referred to as:

A. menopause B. menorhagia C. menarche D. amenorrhea E. dysmenorrhea.

51. During the ovarian cycle, ovulation occurs

A. during the period of menstrual flow
B. during sexual intercourse
C. when estrogen levels are very low
D. when the corpus luteum degenerates
E. during the surge in LH and FSH concentration.

52. In the menstrual cycle, the menstrual phase or menses, usually occurs between day ----- and day ----- of the cycle.

A.(25 and 28) B.(1 and 5) C. (13 and l5) D. (20 and 25)

53. The secretory phase of the endometrium corresponds to which of the following ovarian phases?

A. follicular phase B. ovulation C. luteal phase D. menstrual phase.

54. Which of the following is shed as menses?

A. the perimetrial layer
B. the fibrous layer
C. the functional layer
D. the basal layer
E. the myometrial layer.

55. The dominant hormone controlling the proliferative phase of the uterine endometrium is:

A. estrogen B. FSH C. LH D. progesterone E. hCG

56. A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant as a result of sexual intercourse on days:

A. 1 - 3 B. 5-8 C. 12-15 D. 22-24 E. 24-28.

57. A polar body is formed:

A. before fertilization B. after fertilization C. answers A and B.

58. The cervix is a portion of the:

A. vulva B. vagina C. uterus D. uterine (fallopian) tubes.

59. The female structures that correspond (are homologous) to the scrotum of the male are the:

A. labia minora B. labia majora C. clitoris D. urethral folds E. answers A and C.

60. The major development of organs takes place during the:

A. pre-embryonic period B. embryonic period C. fetal period D. postnatal period.

MATCHING: BODY STRUCTURES AND THE GERM LAYERS FROM WHICH THEY DEVELOP. (Note: Items A through C may be used more than once.)

A. mesoderm B. endoderm C. ectoderm

61. Nervous tissue
62. Connective tissue
63. Epithelial lining of the GI tract
64. Lens
65. Epidermis
66. Muscles
67 .Epithelial lining of the urinary bladder
68. Dermis
69. Blood.

MATCHING. DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FETAL PERIOD. Note: Items A through D may be used more than once.

A. 9 - 12 weeks B. 13-16 weeks C. 17-20 weeks D. 26-29 weeks

70. Lanugo or fetal hair develops
71. Eyes open
72. Bone formation
73. Descent of the testes
74. Vernix caseosa formed for protection
75. Fetal movements called quickening felt
76. Facial features formed
77. May survive a premature delivery.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

78. Implantation normally occurs near the end of the:

A. 1st hour B. 1st day C. 1st week D. 1st month.

79. Which of the following extra-embryonic membranes is the source of the first or primitive blood cells?

A. amnion B. chorion C. allantois D. yolk sac.

80. A fertilized human ovum that will become a female has:

A. 44 chromosomes plus two Y chromosomes
B. a haploid number of chromosomes
C. 46 chromosomes plus one X and one Y chromosome
D. 44 chromosomes plus two X chromosomes
E. none of the above.

81. The decidua basalis is:

A. a component of the umbilical cord
B. the embryonic conceptus
C. the maternal portion of the placenta
D. a vascular membrane derived from the chorion

82. The uterine contractions of labor are stimulated by two agents

A. oxytocin and ADH B. melatonin and oxytocin C. prolactin and LH D. oxytocin and prostaglandin.

83. Twins that develop from two zygotes resulting from the fertilization of two ova by two sperm in the same ovulatory cycle are referred to as:

A. monozygotic twine
B. conjoined twine
C. dizygotic twins
D. identical twins
E. none of the preceding.

MATCHING. (Note: Items A through C may be used more than once.)

A. Testes B. ovaries C. uterus

84. Ovariectomy
85. Hysterectomy
86. Oophorectomy
87. Orchiectomy (Orchidectomy)

A woman was admitted to the hospital for a unilateral salpingectomy following rupture of her left fallopian (uterine) tube: postoperative diagnosis was ectopic pregnancy, left tube. (NOTE: For a yes answer, use an "A"; for a no answer use a "B".)

88. Will future pregnancies be possible for this woman?
89. Will she still menstruate?
90. Will she still ovulate a secondary oocyte at ovulation?

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would: (NOTE: For a yes answer use an "A", for a no answer, use a "B")

91. Develop secondary sex characters
92. Be sterile
93. Have improper functioning of the testicular interstitial cells.


94. Another term for pregnancy is gestation
95. Fertilization usually occurs in the uterine cavity.
96. Fetal testes develop earlier than fetal ovaries
97. The clitoris contains two columns of erectile tissue
98. PIH inhibits the production and release of prolactin
99. Another abbreviation for male LH is ICSH
100. BEST WISHES AND GOOD LUCK! Fill in the E circle!


This page was last updated in August, 1997.

All micrographs are the property of Sherri Wick. Students of Biology 2740 and 2840 are welcome to use this page in the study and review of lecture and lab materials in the Human Physiology and Anatomy courses.

Please e-mail or hand deliver suggestion for changes to this web site that would make the site more helpful to you in your learning and review.

Author: Sherri Wick, Coordinator and Instructor - Human Physiology and Anatomy Laboratories
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Allwine Hall 211E, 554-2343