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BIOLOGY 2740 - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY
PRACTICE TEST 4

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the best answer.

1. The transmission of sound waves through the tympanic cavity of the middle ear occurs through:

A. air B. nerve fibers C. bone D. fluid E. jelly-like vitreous humor

2. The two sac-like structures of the inner ear called the utricle and saccule:

A. contain a fluid called perilymph
B. are part of the membranous labyrinth within the vestibule
C. form the connection between the semicircular canals and the vestibule
D. function as part of the auditory system
E. answers A and C.

3. Which of the following is not one of the auditory ossicles?

A. malleus B. incus C. stapedius

4. Middle ear infection may follow a throat infection because:

A. the auditory (Eustachian) tube opens into the base of the inner ear
B. the pharyngeal (throat) mucosa is continuous with the mucosa of the middle ear
C. the sphenoid sinus opens into the tympanic cavity of the middle ear
D. the vestibulocochlear nerve passes through the tympanic cavity
E. answers A and D.

5. The waxy material in the external auditory canal (meatus) is the product of

A. endolymphatic sacs
B. tarsal glands
C. lacrimal glands
D. ceruminous glands
E. none of the preceding.

6. The auricle or pinna of the outer ear contains:

A. fibroelastic cartilage B. elastic cartilage C. hyaline cartilage D. osseous tissue E. hemopoietic tissue.

7. In the physiology of hearing, which action is it that generates an action potential that causes release of a neurotransmitter substance?

A. movement of cells in the basilar membrane against the spiral organ (=organ of Corti)
B. pressure waves on cells of the vestibular membrane
C. movement of the spiral organ hair cells against the rectorial membrane
D. movement of the membrane covering the round window

8. Otoliths (crystals of CaCO3) are located in the:

A. utricle B. semicircular ducts C. saccule D. answers A and C.

MATCH THE TYPE OF FLUID (ENDOLYMPH OR PERILYMPH) THAT IS FOUND WITHIN THE CAVITIES OR SPACES OF THE APPROPRIATE STRUCTURES. (Notes: Items A and B may be used more than once.)

A. perilymph B. endolymph

9. Scala vestibuli.
10. Cochlear duct.
11. Semicircular ducts.
12. Utricle.
13. Scala tympani.
14. Vestibule.
15. Semicircular canals.
16. Saccule.

MATCHING: INNER EAR (Note: Items A and B may be used more than once.)

A. Membranous labyrinth B. bony or osseous labyrinth.

17. Semicircular ducts.
18. Utricle.
19. Cochlea.
20. Vestibule.
21. Saccule.
22. Semicircular canals.
23. Cochlear duct.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

24. Aqueous humor:

A. provides nutrients for the retina
B. is produced from capillaries in the iris
C. can cause cataracts if overproduced
D. is present in the anterior and posterior chambers
E. all of the above.

25. A lesion that destroyed the left optic tract of a boy affected his eye by eliminating action potentials (=impulses) that would normally have been generated in response to light in the:

A. nasal (medial) retina of the left eye
B. nasal (medial) retina of the right eye
C. the temporal (lateral) retina of the left eye
D. answers A and C
E. answers B and C.

26. Which of the following is not part of the vascular layer or uvea?

A. cornea B. choroid C. ciliary body D. iris E. answers C and D.

27. During embryonic development, the lens of the eye forms:

A. from the rim or distal portion of the retina
B. as part of the fibrous tunic, specifically the sclera
C. from a condensation of aqueous humor
D. from the lateral wall of the diencephalon
E. none of the above.

28. Obstruction of the scleral venous sinus (=canal of Schlemm) interferes with the:

A. drainage of vitreous humor
B. drainage of tears into the lacrimal sac
C. drainage of the tarsal glands
D. drainage of aqueous humor
E. flow of blood through the ciliary body capillaries.

29. Which of the following cannot be seen as one looks into the eye through an ophthalmoscope?

A. macula lutea B. optic chiasma C. fovea centralis D. optic disc.

30. A person with an abnormally short eyeball (anterior to posterior) would be ----- and would wear ----- lenses to correct their vision.

A. nearsighted / concave
B. farsighted concave
C. nearsighted / convex
D. farsighted convex.

31. The perception of color comes from all the following except:

A. red cones
B. yellow cones
C. green cones
D. blue cones
E. answers A and D.

32. The visible outer white surface of the eye is covered by a distinctive epithelium continuous with the inner lining of the eyelids. This epithelium is called the:

A. palpebrae
B. fornix
C. coneal epithelium
D. conjunctiva
E. none of the preceding.

33. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

A. cornea B. pupil C. lens D. ciliary body E. iris.

34. Vision is most acute when light rays are brought to focus on the:

A. fovea centralis
B. the outermost layer of the retina
C. optic disc
D. cells in the occipital lobes of the brain
E. none of the preceding.

35. Night blindness can be treated with:

A. vitamin C B. vitamin D C. vitamin K D. none of the preceding.

36. Loss of the sense of taste on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue might be due to injury to:

A. cranial nerve VII B. cranial nerve III C. cranial nerve IX D. cranial nerve V.

MATCHING: SENSE ORGANS (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A. gustatory cells B. macula lutea C. crista ampullaris D. macula E. spiral organ (organ of Corti).

37. A group of hair cells associated with taste.
38. The gelatinous membrane associated with this group of hair cells contains crystals of calcium carbonate.
39. A group of hair cells located in the saccule.
40. A group of hair cells associated with a cupola.
41. The sense organ of static equilibrium.
42. A group of hair cells located in the utricle.
43. Hair cells located on the vallate and fungiform papillae.
44. A group of hair cells associated with the rectorial membrane.
45. The sense organ of dynamic (angular) equilibrium.
46. A group of hair cells located in the cochlea duct.
47. The sense organ of hearing.
48. A yellowish group of cells surrounding the fovea centralism
49. A group of hair cells. located in the ampulla.

MATCHING: CRANIAL NERVES AND MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH SENSE ORGANS. (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)

A. oculomotor B. facial C. trigeminal D. abducens E. trochlear

50. Superior oblique
51. Superior rectus.
52. Orbicularis oculi.
53. Medial rectus.
54. Levator palpebrae superioris.
55. Lateral rectus.
56. Inferior oblique.
57. Inferior rectus.
58. Tensor tympani.

TRUE OR FALSE: TRUE = A; FALSE = B

59. The function of the lens is to bend or refract light rays and focus them on the optic disc.
60. Tears contain a bactericidal enzyme called lysosome.
61. The conjunctiva is a serous membrane.
62. The sensation of pressure is associated with Pacinian or lamellated corpuscles.
63. Damage to the median rectus eyeball muscles would probably affect convergence of the eyeballs.

MATCHING: Retinal Cells. (Note: Letters may be used more than once, but only one letter per space.)

A.Ganglion cells B.Bipolar cells C.Both A and B D.Neither A nor B.

64. Contact the vitreous humor.
65. Contain the purple pigment known as rhodopsin.
66. Modified forebrain cells.
67. Axons of these cells form the optic nerve.
68. Contact the choroid layer.
69. Cells contain melanin.
70. Cells are multipolar neurons.
71. These cells synapse with ganglion cells.
72. These cells provide daylight vision.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.

73. Receptors that respond quickly to a stimulus but then adapt (sensory adaptation) and decrease their firing rate are called:

A. phasic receptors B. sensory receptors C. somatic receptors D. proprioceptors E. tonic receptors.

74. Which describes the effect of the sympathetic system on the eye pupil and the muscles involved in the action?

A. dilates / circular muscles
B. constricts circular muscles
C. dilates / radial muscles
D. constricts radial muscles.

75. How many different modalities are associated with olfaction?

A. one B. two C . three D. four E. hundreds or even thousands.

76. The bone that contains the osseous labyrinth is the:

A. temporal bone B. occipital bone C. ethmoid cribriform plate D. lacrimal bone E. none of the preceding.

77. During embryonic development the tympanic cavity develops from the:

A. 2nd pharyngeal pouch
B. optic vesicle
C. 1st bronchial groove
D. wall of the diencephalon
E. 1st pharyngeal pouch.

78. The position of joints and the state of muscular contraction is monitored by:

A. nocireceptors B. baroreceptors C. thermoreceptors D. chemoreceptors E. proprioceptors.

MATCHING. Items A through E may be used more than once.

A. Presbyopia B. cataract C. glaucoma D. myopia E. hyperopia.

79. Clouding of the lens.
80. Elongation of the eyeball.
81. Loss of elasticity of the lens with aging.
82. Compression of, and loss of fibers in the optic nerve.
83. Associated with an increase in intraocular pressure.
84. Eyeball is too short.
85. The lens tends to lose its ability to accommodate.
86. Often referred to as nearsightedness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER.

87. The organs of taste are called:

A. papillae B. taste pores C. taste hairs D. taste buds E. none of the preceding.

88. A cut on the finger would activate which receptors?

A.baroreceptors B. nociceptors C. Ruffini corpuscles D. chemoreceptors E. none of the preceding.

89. Receptors for general senses provide information for all the following except:

A. temperature B. pain C. touch D. sight E. two of the preceding.

90. Receptors for light touch are called and they are located in the

A. Meissner's corpuscles epidermis
B. bulbs of Krause / dermis
C. Pacinian corpuscles epidermis
D. Meissner's corpuscles / dermis
E. Ruffini corpuscles / hypodermis.

91. The oval window is located at the base of the:

A. scala vestibule B. auditory tube C. cochlear duct D. scala tympani E. external auditory canal

TRUE AND FALSE: TRUE = A; FALSE= B.

92. Another name for the vestibular membrane is eardrum.
93. Another name for the optic chiasma is the blind spot.
94. A person can see better during the day than at night because there are more cones within the retina than rods.
95. The visual image is inverted on the retina.
96. The nasolacrimal ducts empty into the lacrimal sacs.
97. The ear ossicles constitute the bony labyrinth.
98. Bending of light rays is called refraction.
99. The stapes transmits vibrations to the oval window.
100. Fill in the E circle!

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This page was last updated in August, 1997.

Author: Sherri Wick, Coordinator and Instructor - Human Physiology and Anatomy Laboratories
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Allwine Hall 211E, 554-2343
swick@cwis.unomaha.edu