MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the best answer.
1. When the membrane potential (i.e. -70 mV) becomes less negative or in other words, approaches zero, the membrane is said to be:
A. polarizing B. hyperpolarizing C. prepolarizing D. autopolarizing E. depolarizing.
2. An all-or-none nerve fiber impulse, may be triggered by:
A. a weak below threshold stimulus
B. a weak but threshold stimulus
C. a strong well-above threshold stimulus
D. either, A or B
E. either, B or C.
3. Resting membrane potential, is defined as:
A. The movement of sodium ions outside the membrane and the movement of potassium ions inside the membrane
B. the difference in electrical charges between the inside and outside of a resting nerve membrane
C. the movement of action potentials along a resting axon
D. the movement of ions along the external surface of a resting membrane.
4. During an infection of the CNS, you might expect to find an increase in:
A.Schwann cells B. microglia C. astrocytes D. oligodendrocytes E. ependymal cells.
5. Bipolar neurons are located in the:
6. Destruction of which cranial nerve would result in the inability to smile?
A. V; B. VI; C. VII; D. IX; E. X.
7. Nerve fibers that carry sensory impulses from skeletal muscles to the brain and spinal cord are called:
A. somatic efferent
B. visceral efferent
C. visceral afferent
D. somatic afferent
E. none of the preceding.
8. Destruction of which cranial nerve would result in the inability to masticate food?
A. V; B. VI; C. VII; D. IX; E. X.
MATCH THE MAJOR BRAIN REGION WITH THE APPROPRIATE STRUCTURE. (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)
9. Vasomotor center
10. Occipital lobe
11. Cerebral aqueduct
13. Pineal gland (body)
14. Third ventricle
15. Superior colliculus
16. Lateral ventricles
19. Medulla oblongata
20. Frontal lobe
MULTIPLE CHOICE. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER.
22. The layer of connective tissue surrounding a nerve, is called the:
A. epimysium B. apomysium C. endoneurium D. epineurium E. perimysium.
23. The central sulcus in the cerebrum, separates the ----- from the ----- lobe.
A. temporal / occipital
B. frontal / parietal
C. parietal occipital
D. temporal / frontal
24. Bundles of axons or nerve fibers are known as tracts, except in the PNS, where they are known as:
A. ganglia B. interneurons C. nuclei D. nerves E. postsynaptic neurons.
25. The two principal divisions of the nervous system are the:
A. afferent nervous system and the efferent nervous system
B. autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system
C. parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
D. saltatory conduction and continuous conduction systems
E. peripheral nervous system and central nervous system
26. Destruction of which cranial nerve would result in the inability to smell?
A. X; B. VII; C. V; D.II; E. I.
MATCHING. (Items A through E may be used more than once. Only one letter per answer.)
27. Broca's area that makes speech possible
28. Reflex center for coordination of skeletal muscle movements
29. Functions involve responses related to memory, emotions, reasoning, judgment, planning and verbal communication
30. Area responsible for vision
31. Location of sensory area responsible for hearing
32. Controls muscular movements of the hands and fingers that make skills, such as writing possible (precentral gyrus)
33. The tracts of white matter have a distinctive branching matter called the arbor vitae
34. The two hemispheres of this structure are joined together by the vermis
35. Contains the location for the sensations of touch, temperature, and pressure (postcentral gyrus)
MATCHING. Innervation of the extrinsic ocular muscles. (Note: Items A through C may be used more than once.)
36. Medial rectus muscle
37. Inferior rectus muscle
38. Superior oblique muscle
39. Inferior oblique muscle
40. Superior rectus muscle
41. Lateral rectus muscle
TRUE OR FALSE TRUE = A; FALSE = B
42. All spinal nerves are mixed nerve.
43. The hormone oxytocin is produced by cells in the pineal gland
44. A multipolar neuron has several axons and one dendrite
45. The term aphasia refers to speech and language disorders
46. Dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine are classified as catecholamines
47. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter
48. The endoneurium is composed of fine delicate nerve fibers
49. Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are responsible for monitoring the osmotic concentration of the blood
50. The pituitary gland is attached to the epithalamus by the infundibulum
51. In the spinal cord the columns of white matter are called fascicles
52. Brain waves may be recorded as an electrocardiogram
MATCHING CRANIAL NERVES: (Note: Items A through E may be used more than once.)
53. Muscles of the tongue
54. Buccinator muscle
55. Temporalis muscle
56. Masseter muscle
57. Ophthalmic region of the head
58. Taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
59. Frontalis muscle
60. Medial and lateral pterygoids
61. Mandibular region of the head
62. Trapezius muscle
63. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
64. Also known as number VII
65. Also known as number IX
66.Also known as number V
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.
67. The part of the brain responsible for the regulation of body temperature and hunger is the:
A. superior colliculus B. parietal lobe C. epithalamus D. medulla oblongata E. hypothalamus
68. The region of the brain stem located between the midbrain and medulla oblongata is the:
A. pons B. hypothalamus C. corpus callosum D. intermediate mass E. cerebral peduncles
69. Which of the following statements about the spinal cord is true?
A. it extends from the foramen magnum to the level of S1
B. it is located in the central canal
C. both ascending and descending fiber tracts are present
D. it consists of a central area of white matter, surrounded by gray matter
E. two of the above
70. Which one of the following structures allows CSF to pass from the subarachnoid space to the dural sinus?
A. inter-vertebral foramina
B. choroid plexuses
C. corpus callosum
D. arachnoid villi
E. spinal central canal.
71. Which of the following is not a catecholamine?
A. epinephrine B. acetylcholine C. norepinephrine C. corpus callosum D. dopamine
MATCH THE SPINAL NERVE WITH ITS APPROPRIATE PLEXUS. (Note: Items A through D may be used more than once.)
72. Sciatic nerve
73. Phrenic nerve
74. Obturator nerve
75. Axillary nerve
77. Tibial nerve
78. Femoral nerve
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the best answer.
79. Which of the following is located in the PNS?
A. Astrocytes B. ependyma C. oligodendrocytes D. Schwann cells E. all of the preceding.
80. The crossed extensor reflex:
A. involves five neurons
B. has its reflex center in the frontal lobes
C. is a contralateral reflex
D. is a polysynaptic reflex
E. two of the preceding.
81. The autonomic system:
A. operates reflexly
B. contains somatic motor fibers;
C. contains ganglia
D. all of the preceding;
E. answers A and C.
82. The cell bodies of postganglionic autonomic fibers are located in:
A. the lateral horn of the spinal cord
B. the effector organ
C. the ventral horn of the spinal cord
D. the medulla oblongata
83. What type of effector is not under autonomic regulation ?
84. Which of the following cranial nerves contains motor nerve fibers?
A. abducens B. optic C. olfactory D. vestibulocochlear E. none of the preceding.
85. The cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are located in the:
A. cervical and thoracic spinal cord
B. brain and lumbar spinal cord
C. thoracic and lumbar spinal cord
D. brain and sacral spinal cord.
86. There are ------ segments in the spinal cord.
A. 11 B. 2 C. 31 D. 41 E. 30.
87. Repolarization of an axon during an action potential is produced by:
A. inward diffusion of sodium ions
B. extrusion of potassium from the cell by active transport
C. outward diffusion of potassium ions
D. inward diffusion of calcium ions
E. none of the above
88. The hormone melatonin is produced by the:
A. pituitary gland B. hypothalamus C. epithalamus D. medulla oblongata E. none of the preceding.
89. Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic fibers?
A. III, V, IV, and VII
B. VII, IX, VIII, and X
C. III, VII, IX, and X
D. VII, V, VIII, and X.
MATCHING: SPINAL NERVE AND MUSCLES. (Note Items A through D may be used more than once.)
A. Obturator nerve B. femoral nerve C. axillary nerve D. radial nerve.
90. Triceps brachii
92. Psoas major
95. Biceps femoris
96. Vastus lateralis.
97. Adductor longus
99. Rectus femoris
100. Fill in the A circle